University English: the blog for ESL students

May 31, 2017

“Flipped” Classrooms

Filed under: Grad School — richardlstansfield @ 9:37 pm

So what is a flipped classroom? Take the quiz below to find out!

A flipped classroom is a classroom in which …

a. there are no mass-produced textbooks. Students use outside sources and collaborate to make the textbooks themselves.
b. the students’ desks are arranged in groups to facilitate collaborative work. The teacher’s desk is in the center of the room.
c. the students watch videos or listen to podcasts at home. At school, they explore and apply what was learned at home. Afterwards, at home, reflective exercises are done.
d. students take five-minute breaks every twenty-five minutes, during which they do cartwheels. This increases blood flow to the brain.

While considering your answer, you might want to read the story of Adrian and Eva.


Adrian attends Mead E. Ochre High School. In his history class, he is learning about the War of 1812 (a.k.a. The Time We Sent The Yankees Packing). In class, he listens to his teacher lecture, and at home, he does homework, answering questions like: “Who were the belligerents?” Next class, the teacher gives the answers to the homework questions, and then lectures again.


Eva is also a high school student, though she attends Justin Credible High. Like Adrian, she is also learning about the Great Patriotic Resistance. At home, she watches a fifteen-minute video describing what happened from before the beginning of the war to 1814. She takes notes on a handout that her teacher had given during the previous class. At the beginning of next class, she has to show her completed handout as an “entrance ticket” to her seat. She sits in a group of four desks. (There are several groups of four desks in the classroom.) She and the other three students work together to do the following tasks: “Write down six causes of the war, and rank them in order of importance (1 = most important, 6 = least important). Write down your reasons for your rankings.” In the last part of the class, one member of each group reports their group’s rankings, and reasons why, to the rest of the class. At home, Eva logs on to the class’ discussion board. There, she writes down one question on something she still didn’t understand, and answers one of her classmate’s questions. Then she watches the lecture for her next history class.

As you might have guessed by now, a “flipped classroom” is one in which students watch or listen to a lecture at home, rather than at school. At school, they do activities in which they explore and apply what they learned.

A Traditional Classroom

A “Flipped” Classroom

This is new, right?
Actually, only if the at-home materials are videos or podcasts. For over a hundred years, law school students have had to read case studies at home, and in class they would discuss them. Law professors would call on random students to answer questions, and if they couldn’t answer them, they would look foolish. Literature classes, too, have been “flipped” for a long time. Students read literature at home and discuss it in class. Many university classes have likewise been flipped for a while. In fact, the class that we are all taking now could be considered to be flipped; we do our readings and then post our reflections, takeaways, work, and discussion input online.

Below is a video that gives a quick overview of “flipped classrooms.”

You might have noticed that there is a third component to the flipped classroom, reflection, that is often neglected in discussions about flipped classrooms. Examples of reflection exercises include:

– reflective discussion board
Eva, above, participates in one (as do we!).

– photovoice, in which a student posts a picture and text that explains how the picture relates to the lesson
For example, a student learned about Newton’s First Law of Motion. He posted a picture of his son, and described how his son (a body) would run around the room (in motion) and continue to do so (stays in motion) until he puts out some candy (acted upon by an outside force).

– exam questions
Students suggest questions for the final exam. The instructor might even choose some of them for the actual final.


* You might recall Bloom’s taxonomy, a pyramid with lower-order objectives at the bottom, and higher-order objectives at the top. If you look at the picture below, you can see an illustration of the fact that, in a traditional classroom, lower-order objectives are attempted in class, and higher ones at home. In a flipped classroom, lower-order objectives are attempted at home and higher ones in class. Since the higher-order objectives are presumed to be both more difficult and more important, it is desirable that they be attempted under the guidance of the teacher.

* Students can pause, rewind, fast-forward, or re-watch the videos if they are having difficulty understanding. This can be particularly useful for students who don’t speak English as a first language.

* Students who don’t like the subject, topic, or material might enjoy the social aspects of the work done in a flipped classroom.

* Peer-teaching
Weaker students can be helped by stronger students. (This may not always be the case. See “Disadvantages” for more details.)

* Individualized Attention
As students work together, the teacher can walk around the classroom and give help to those students who ask for it or clearly need it.

* Because the videos should be short, the process of making them can make teachers reflect upon the most important points that they want to make, and the best ways to teach them.

* Students engage in collaborative learning. Remember what Dirksen wrote on pages 146 and 147, in which the main difference between the high-performing Asian students and the low-performing minority students was the fact that the Asian students studied together.


* Students who do not have easy access to digital devices and/or the Internet might be at a disadvantage.

* Students are required to go online, where there are many distractions. In fact, websites are designed to be as addictive as possible. Go to the following links for more details:

* One cannot ask a video questions. If understanding the second half of the video requires understanding the first half, what happens if the student doesn’t understand the first half?

* What if the person designing the video is not the same person who is teaching in the classroom? There might be a slight disconnect between the video and what the instructor would really like to teach.

* Some students will ride their classmates’ coattails. Anyone who has ever had students work on group projects has probably had students come to you to complain that Student X isn’t pulling their weight.

* Some subjects are more conducive to being flipped than others. For example, how does one go about teaching literature in a flipped classroom? First of all, many are, in a sense, flipped already. (Students are supposed to do readings at home.) Secondly, would a fifteen-minute podcast or audiobook excerpt be enough to cover the same amount of reading?

* Teachers have to find the time to record, edit, and upload their videos.

* What if teachers are not tech-savvy?

* What if the administration is not supportive?

* If one simply records poor lectures, posts them online, and flips the classroom, there is unlikely to be much improvement.

Effect upon Grades

Teachers have little choice but to “teach to the middle” which inevitably leads to, say, 10% of students being utterly bored and, say, 20% of students being completely lost.
Flipping a classroom offers an opportunity to “expand the middle,” so that fewer students are getting low marks. Take a look below at a chart that one professor made from the results from two classes, one traditional and one flipped.

If you look carefully, however, you will notice a catch. While there are more B’s, and fewer C’s and F’s, there are also fewer A’s. It seems that even though many students benefit from flipping a classroom, a minority of “A” students become “B” students. If true, then this means that some excellent students don’t fulfill their potential in flipped classrooms.

How to have your classroom “flip” and not “flop”

Below is a list of guidelines for avoiding the common pitfalls that can lead to the failure of a flipped classroom.

* Teach the students how to watch, by doing the following:
a. Watch a few videos with your class.
b. Go over what you want them to do and what you expect of them.

* Keep the videos short.
Videos should be 1 to 1.5 minutes per grade level.
e.g. 4th grade –> 4 to 6 minutes
e.g. 10th grade –> 10 to 15 minutes

* Be prepared for students who can’t watch the videos
Here are some issues and solutions, which unfortunately will require support (administrative, resources, etc.).

– Students have no Internet at home?
Put the lessons onto USB flash drives or DVDs.

– Students have no digital devices at home?
Students can access digital devices at the school’s library, computer room, media lab, or classrooms (if they’re equipped). They could also borrow digital devices from the school.

– Student have no time at home?
They can watch the lessons at lunch, recess, before class, or between classes.

* Hold students accountable.

You can do this by having them …
a. take notes (e.g. definitions, examples, very short summaries, etc.).
b. write questions about the material.
c. answer a question sheet that you handed out to them.
d. embed videos onto a website, above questions for students to print out and answer.
All of the above could be used as “entrance tickets” to your classroom.

* If some students don’t watch the video, do NOT play the video in class.

If you do, you will:
a. essentially be punishing those students who did what they were supposed to, by making them watch the video again.
b. ensuring that, in the future, more students will not watch the video at home.
c. turn your “flipped classroom” into a standard classroom, just one with a video introduction.

So what should you do with those students who didn’t watch the video? They will have to watch it while you do your planned activities with those students who did. If your classroom is equipped with computers, they can watch it, at the back of the room. If your classroom is not equipped, then you will have to send them to another room (e.g. media center) that has the needed digital devices. This will require administrative support. (Good luck with that.)

* Videos will take longer to make than expected.
You might think: “I’ll just set up a camera and do my regular lecture.” However, one should take into account the time that will be needed for editing, uploading, etc.

* Disagreements lead to discussion.

When it’s time to discuss answers, ask students to find someone who got a different answer. Otherwise, their interactions will sound something like this:
Jack: What did you get for Question 3?
Jill: “B.” What did you get?
Jack: “B.” So what did you do last night?

* Expect push-back from your students.
Learning can be hard work, even if it’s fun. Sitting through a lecture is easy, especially these days in which students can just surf social networks on their cell-phones.
Another thing to consider is the fact that since lectures are such a traditional way of teaching, many students expect it. Some university students will question why they are paying high tuition fees to watch a lecture online and then come to class to do warm-fuzzy-feelings activities with their classmates.
As one person put it, “Lectures are a security blanket for students. And instructors.”

* Sell your “product.”
It might be a good idea to tell students that they will be engaging in practices that are known to be more effective in learning and retention. This can lessen the “push-back.”
Many students study with ineffective methods, unaware that they are ineffective. Below, on the left, are the effectiveness (as measured by test scores) of various study methods: study, repeated study, concept mapping, and retrieval practice. On the right are students’ perceived effectiveness of those same methods. Notice the disparity.

* Be Selective
If there is a topic that you are pretty sure that your students will have difficulty with, you might want to stick to a traditional classroom.

* Ease into It
You can start slowly by flipping just one lesson, chapter, topic, class, or day of the week (e.g. “Flipped Fridays”).

The False Dichotomy

Advocates of flipped classrooms often describe modern, non-flipped classrooms in ways that are appropriate for traditional classrooms, but may not describe many modern classrooms. For example, in my ESL (English as Second Language) lessons, I have used practice, discussions, problem-solving, group projects, presentations, and other methods. For example, go to the link below to see group projects that my students worked on in class and later presented to their classmates.

Further Exploration (Optional)

Here are some videos that you could watch for a deeper understanding of flipped classrooms.

* a teacher presents video recordings of his tradition and flipped classrooms which allow you to see what they look like (desk arrangement, what the teacher and students are doing, etc.)

* this is an actual video that high-school physics students would watch

* this video describes where to find high-quality pre-made videos and how to make your own

* a long (76 minute) presentation that is full of ideas

* another long (50 minute) presentation that discusses misconceptions about flipped classrooms


Here is a list of resources for instructors who might want to have flipped classrooms.

Online Discussion Boards

Online Simulations

Online Polling

Digital Stickynotes/Corkboard

Pre-made Videos

Make-Your-Own Videos
– Screencast-o-matic

Bank of Practice Questions on Many Disciplines
– learningpod


September 8, 2016

My Introduction

Filed under: Introduction — richardlstansfield @ 1:27 am

Hi everyone.

Thanks for coming.

I decided to introduce myself here because this is the web-site that I used for six years as a supplement to my lessons. Through it I kept my students informed, stored useful pictures and video links, etc. Feel free to explore around if you want. (I’m not sure how interesting you will find it, though. You might be interested in the presentations that my students made.) If you’re curious, I also have a couple of other websites which I made for a couple of special English as a Second Language courses that I taught. One was oriented towards science, and the other centered on music.


I was born in Vancouver, but when I was about two years old, my parents and I moved to a suburb of Montreal, where I grew up. After earning a bachelor’s in psychology, I switched to education (specifically, Teaching English as a Second Language). I loved psychology, but as I prepared to go to graduate school in it, I felt that education might be a more suitable career for me. After graduating with another bachelor’s, this one in TESL, I went to South Korea, intending to only stay for a year. I ended up staying for over nineteen. In my last few years there, I felt I wanted to further develop my education, so I made plans to attend graduate school after returning to Canada.

While I was in Korea, I had a new type of corrective eye surgery. I had very high myopia (short-sightedness), so neither lasik nor lasek would have corrected my vision. I had contact lenses inserted into my eyes. Here are some pictures showing what that looks like and you can click here to read more about it.


How I ended up at UNB

While in Korea, I read the book “The Shallows” by Nicholas Carr. If you’ve never heard of that book, you can get a sense of it by reading an article by the same author called “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” I knew that that was what I wanted to study at graduate school. I looked up the names of a couple of the researchers at the back of the book and e-mailed them. I was directed to a researcher in Norway named Anne Mangen. I asked if there was someone in Canada I could study with. I was pointed towards a professor at the University of Alberta named Cathy Adams. She asked me where I was from in Canada. At the time, I was still in Korea, but I replied that I grew up in Quebec, where my family is still located. She informed me that if I would like to return to Eastern Canada, and I quote, “I can highly recommend Dr. Ellen Rose at UNB.” So I contacted Professor Rose via e-mail, applied to UNB, and returned to Canada. After staying for a while with one of my sisters in Quebec, I moved to Fredericton at the end of July 2016.


Ironically, I moved to Fredericton to be a full-time, on-campus graduate student, but all of the courses that I’ve taken or will take, save one, are all online. For those who are curious, those courses were: Introduction to Research, Needs Assessment, Issues in Educational Technology (my only face-to-face course), Introduction to Instructional Design, and Instructional Design for Online Learners.


In my free time, I like to stay fit. I’ve run nine half-marathons and a 15 km run. Here’s a picture of me after finishing one of my half-marathons, with my finisher’s medal.


This coming May 14, I’ll be running a half-marathon in Fredericton. It’ll be my tenth.

The ironic thing is that I actually don’t like running that much. I find it to be kind of boring compared to other kinds of exercise. So why do I run half-marathons? Because it’s the ultimate fitness test, and a goal that I can work towards.

By the way, if any of you are interested in accessing free, high-quality exercise videos, go here. All of their videos are rated by difficult levels, from 1 (easiest) to 5 (most difficult). You can also find their videos their YouTube channel. Other YouTube channels that you might want to check out are Joanna Soh, Blogilates, Millionaire Hoy, and Christine Salus.


After living in Korea for so long, you might think that I developed a love of K-pop (Korean pop music). However, I actually find Japanese music to be more interesting. One reason is because they don’t see anything strange with mixing different genres. For example:

Wagakki Band

They blend traditional Japanese instruments (wagakki) and shigin (poetry performance) with modern rock music.



They are the unlikely mix of heavy metal and J-pop (Japanese pop music).


Pop Meets Metal

I also like heavy metal versions of pop songs.

Lady Gaga’s “Perfect Illusion”

Michael Jackson’s “Smooth Criminal”

“Levels” by Avicii and Skrillex

Adele’s “Hello”

Anyway, that’s all for now.

See you online.


December 21, 2015

Final Marks

Filed under: final marks — richardlstansfield @ 6:46 am

Dear students,

Below are your final marks.

First, look for your class #. Then, find your Student ID#. Next to it is your final mark. You cannot ask for a higher grade. However, you can ask questions.

Yours truly,
Richard Stansfield

Class 5

12150384 A0
12150021 B0
12110739 B+
12153886 C0
12150412 B0
12151075 C+
12111740 B+
12150926 C+
12151976 F
12151086 C0
12134630 F
12131921 C+
12154604 C0
12150474 A+

Class 14

12150243 C+
12121613 C+
12112044 C+
12151026 C0
12154627 B+
12013580 A+
12154689 A0
12154686 C0
12123741 B0
12150106 C+
12151878 C0
12150229 D+
12150304 B+

Class 23

12091064 A0
12150968 C0
12150413 A+
12150069 C0
12150419 C0
12150074 C+
12150427 C+
12151270 F
12150987 B0
12153703 C+
12150441 B+
12150104 B+
12153753 B0
12141002 F
12100981 A+

Class 32

12151117 C+
12151228 D+
12150024 C0
12150664 C0
12122015 A+
12151554 B0
12101828 A0
12111287 C+
12143090 C+
12091792 B+
12122071 B+
12150306 C0

Class 41

12121607 C0
12150386 C+
12102241 F
12091066 A0
12100082 C0
12151133 B+
12121280 C+
12110293 B+
12154618 D+
12150284 C0
12141454 A+
12151303 B0
12151311 C+

December 8, 2015

Homework Assignment

Filed under: homework — richardlstansfield @ 10:28 am

Write or print out your name, class number, and the answers to the questions below.
Write complete sentences and use the conditional (condition clause + result clause).
Put your paper in a box that will be in front of my office door from Monday, December 14 to Friday, December 18, 5 pm (17:00).

1. If you meet your friend later, what will you do?
2. If you met the leader of your country, what would you say?
3. If you spoke perfect English, would you be very proud? Why or why not?
4. If you lose your phone, will you buy a cheaper phone or a more expensive phone? Why?
5. If the weather is good tomorrow, will you go out? Why or why not?
6. If you had enough money, would you travel into space? Why or why not?
7. If you had a million dollars, what would you do?

December 2, 2015

Final Speaking Exam

Filed under: final speaking exam,Tests/Exams — richardlstansfield @ 5:44 am

You will do two tasks. You will have a maximum of four minutes.

No reading. No Power Point presentations. Just you talking.

Task 1: Give Advice to Two People

* Your friend JP can’t find a job. He gets low test scores, has no work experience, doesn’t dress smartly, and is often tired. He asks you, “What should I do?”

* Your friend Michael is having difficulty with his studies. He is having trouble organizing his time. He asks you, “What should I do?”

Task 2: Describe Two Objects

Describe two objects. You can describe a TV (television), a flashlight, a radio, a microwave oven, a hammer, a vacuum cleaner, a shopping trolley, or something else.

You can mention the following:
– functions
– colour
– shape
– size
– features
– weight
– price
– materials
– number of parts
– where you find it
– advantages
– disadvantages


 Arrive early and wait inside.

During the mid-term exams, some people came in late. Here are two real examples.

Real Example #1

Student: I’m ready to do my exam now.
Teacher: You missed your exam.
Student: My exam is at 2:40.
Teacher: No, your exam was at 1:40.
Student: 헐 …

Real Example #2

Student: I’m ready to do my exam now.
Teacher: You missed your exam. It was at 1:40.
Student: I was outside at 1:30.
Teacher: So why didn’t you come inside and take your exam?
Student: I don’t know.
Teacher: I don’t know either.

* So, for the final speaking exam:

– come early, and
– come inside and wait.

The teacher will not go outside and call you to come it. You should be inside the classroom when it is time for your exam.

* If anyone misses their final speaking exam, they get zero (0/25) points.

* If anyone comes in late, they will receive penalties as follows:
1 minute late: – 25%
2 minutes late: – 50%
3 minutes late: – 75%
4 minutes late: missed the exam  0 points

Remember that this counts from the time that you begin speaking, not from the time that you arrive.

Final Speaking Exam Appointments

Filed under: final speaking exam,Tests/Exams — richardlstansfield @ 5:42 am

Class 14

Wednesday, December 9

Student Name, Student ID #, Appointment Time
김구현 12150243 9:00
김만정 12121613 9:05
류지혜 12112044 9:10
박소연 12151026 9:15
사아려 12154627 9:20
송지영 12013580 9:25
아블라예바카 12154689 9:30
왕군림 12154686 9:35
이다혜 12123741 9:40
이동길 12150106 9:45
이효영 12151878 9:50
조하늘 12150229 9:55
최규락 12150304 10:10

Class 32
Thursday, December 10

Student Name, Student ID #, Appointment Time
고경서 12151117 10:30
김경현 12151228 10:35
김민중 12150024 10:40
김진현 12150664 10:45
김혜승 12122015 10:50
박다혜 12151554 10:55
박수홍 12101828 11:00
송창민 12111287 11:05
이다솜 12143090 11:10
이용호 12091792 11:15
정범기 12122071 11:20
최용호 12150306 11:25

Class 5
Thursday, December 10

Student Name, Student ID #, Appointment Time
김다미 12150384 2:30
김동균 12150021 2:35
김민수 12110739 2:40
리우림 12153886 2:45
박근범 12150412 2:50
박소현 12151075 2:55
박주석 12111740 3:00
서성준 12150926 3:05
윤성원 12151976 3:10
윤형우 12151086 3:15
이데르바트 12134630 3:20
이승훈 12131921 3:25
장전서 12154604 3:30
황민지 12150474 3:35

Class 23
Friday, December 11

Student Name, Student ID #, Appointment Time
김영진 12091064 10:30
김장곤 12150968 10:35
박다해 12150413 10:40
박윤호 12150069 10:45
박진수 12150419 10:50
박창수 12150074 10:55
송혁진 12150427 11:00
신광훈 12151270 11:05
신산하 12150987 11:10
염채린 12153703 11:15
오치종 12150441 11:20
이경민 12150104 11:25
이유경 12153753 11:30
정우석 12141002 11:35
호종현 12100981 11:40

Class 41
Friday, December 11

Student Name, Student ID #, Appointment Time
김근용 12121607 2:30
김동희 12150386 2:35
김민주 12102241 2:40
김유준 12091066 2:45
김인성 12100082 2:50
김재현 12151133 2:55
김현웅 12121280 3:00
양희승 12110293 3:05
예명동 12154618 3:10
이명석 12150284 3:15
이정균 12141454 3:20
이헌 12151303 3:25
전덕원 12151311 3:30

Unit 10: Possible Quiz Material

Filed under: Tests/Exams — richardlstansfield @ 5:39 am

* Homonyms (page 180, exercises 1 and 2; page 181, exercise 6)

* Synonyms (page 182, exercise 1; page 183, exercise 2)

* Conditionals (Type i and Type ii)

* Inviting Someone Else to Speak, Interrupting (politely), and Continuing to Speak (after an interruption)

Unit 10: Space and the Universe

Filed under: Unit 10: Space and the Universe — richardlstansfield @ 5:32 am


. Where does this movie take place?
. What is this movie about?
. Would you like to go on an adventure like this?
Why or why not?

. Have you heard of this movie?
. Did you see the movie?
–> If so, did you like it? Why or why not?
–> If not, would you like to see it? Why or why not?
. If you were alone on Mars, what do you think would be the best thing?
. If you were alone on Mars, what do you think would be the worst thing?

Bonus Question: Do you recognize this song from the soundtrack?

– words that have similar meanings
e.g. big, large
e.g. smart, intelligent

– words that have the same pronunciation
(but have different meanings)
e.g. see, sea
e.g. meet, meat

Fill in the blanks with the correct homonyms.
* Chicken, beef, and pork are different kinds of _meat_.
* I like to go to the beach and swim in the _sea_.

Page 180, Exercise 1

Underline the two words in each sentence that have the same pronunciation.

1. sun, son
2. read, red
3. whether, weather
4. ate, eight
5. There, their
6. Our, hour

Page 181, Exercise 6

Write one word in each gap.

1. whether
2. our
3. sun
4. Red
5. to … two
6. few (four)

Page 182, Exercise 8

1. F
2. T
3. T
4. F
5. F
6. F

If it’s False, what is the true information?

1. F
Inspiration Mars don’t want a couple as they won’t will help each other.
2. T
3. T
4. F
Diamond planets are found in outside of our solar system.
5. F
Lucy is not as heavy as eight times heavier than Earth.
6. F
… one year passes in 24 18 hours.

Listen to the second part of the listening again, and answer the questions.

1. How long will the journey to Mars take?
2. Will the spacecraft land on Mars?
3. What was Lucy created by?
4. How big is Lucy?
5. How many diamonds does Lucy have?
6. Is Lucy hot or cold? How hot or cold?


1. How long will the journey to Mars take?
The journey will take 501 days.
2. Will the spacecraft land on Mars?
No, it will just circle Mars.
3. What was Lucy created by?
Lucy was created by heat.
4. How big is Lucy?
Lucy is 4,000 km across.
5. How many diamonds does Lucy have?
Lucy has more diamonds than all the ones found on Earth throughout history.
6. Is Lucy hot or cold? How hot or cold?
Lucy is very hot. Lucy is 3,500 degrees Celsius.

Page 183, Exercise 1

1. travel
2. travel
3. travel

4. journey

5. trip

6. voyage

Page 183, Exercise 2

1. journey
2. travel
3. cruise/voyage
4. flight
5. trip
6. voyage
7. trip
8. voyage

Page 184, Exercise 4
Match the sentence halves.
1. b
2. a

Page 184, Exercise 5
Match the conditional sentences in Exercise 4 with their functions.
i. 2
ii. 1

Condition Clause Result Clause
If + present tense will/can

If they can find a married couple, they believe the couple
will be able to help each

Condition Clause Result Clause
If + past tense would/could

If the planet Lucy were mined, there would be more
diamonds than on earth.

Page 184, Exercise 7

1. If I meet my friend later, we will go to the cinema.
 i
2. If I met the president or leader of my country, I wouldn’t know what to say.
 ii
3. If I spoke perfect English, I would be very proud.
 ii
4. If I lose my phone, I will have to buy a new one.
(If I lost my phone, I would have to buy a new one.)
 i (ii)
5. If the weather is good tomorrow, I will go out.
 i
6. You could travel into space if you had enough money.
 ii

. If you meet your friend later, what will you do?
. If you met the leader of your country, what would you say?
. If you spoke perfect English, would you be very proud? Why or why not?
. If you lose your phone, will you buy a cheaper phone or a more expensive phone? Why?
. If the weather is good tomorrow, will you go out? Why or why not?
. If you had enough money, would you travel into space? Why or why not?

Page 185, Exercise 1

Complete the words in the table.

Verb Person Noun
1. explore 2. explorer
3. research 4. research
5. worker 6. work
7. traveller
8. presenter 9. presentation
10. thinker


– Have you heard of the International Space Station?
– What do you think it is used for?
– Do you think it is useful? Why or why not?
Page 186, Exercise 7

1. exploration

2. work

3. money

4. future

Page 186, Exercise 10

Question 1: What are they doing during the discussion?
1. describing what the Space Station looks like
2. evaluating the Space Station and its good and bad points
3. inventing a new Space Station which can do different things
Question 2: What do they mention during the discussion?
1. time taken to travel to the Space Station
2. the type of work done on the Space Station
3. routines of living there
4. money spent on the project
5. the number of astronauts living there
6. types of space shuttle to travel there


– Exercise 8:
2 to evaluate the Space Station and its good and bad points
– Exercise 9
2 the type of work done on the Space Station
4 money spent on the project

Page 186, Exercise 11
Match the people with their opinion about the space station.

1. Dorota Loy
2. Professor Chen
3. Raj Padow

Page 189, Exercise 3

Inviting Someone Else To Speak
– Let’s get your thoughts on this.
a. What is your opinion?
f. You haven’t said much. What do you think?
g. Why don’t you start us off?
i. Would anybody like to say anything else about …?

– Can I just say something here?
d. Can I just cut in there?
e. Sorry, but I have to interrupt you and say …
h. Sorry, but can I just say …

Continuing To Speak
– Can I finish my point?
– Please allow me to finish.
b. Can I finish?
c. I’d like to finish my point.
j. Let me finish what I was saying.

Page 190, Exercise 4
1. a (What is your opinion?)
/g (Why don’t you start us off …)
2. d (Can I just cut in there?)
3. b (Can I finish?)
/c (I’d like to finish my point)
/j (Let me finish what I was saying.)
4. i (Would anybody like to say anything else about …)
5. f (You haven’t said much. What do you think?)
6. a (What is your opinion?)
/i (Would anybody like to say anything else about …)

Page 190, Exercise 6
1. S
2. F
3. S
4. S
5. F
6. F

Discussion Procedure

1. Student A expresses opinion.
2. Student A invites Student B to express opinion.
3. Student B begins to express opinion.
4. Student C interrupts Student B and expresses opinion.
5. Student B continues and finishes expressing opinion.
(6. Student D expresses opinion.)


– Should we explore space? Why or why not?

– Should we build a colony on the moon? Why or why not?

– Should all countries be forbidden from having weapons in space? Why or why not?

– Should we send explorers to Mars? Why or why not?

– What should we do if we find evidence of aliens?

– Which place in the solar system do you think would be the best place for humans to live (e.g. the moon, another planet in the solar system, etc.)? Why?

– What should we do if we find an asteroid coming towards the earth?

– Do you think Global Climate Change is a serious problem? Why or why not?
– How can we reduce pollution in the world?

– Should South Korea increase immigration? Why or why not?

– Should Kim Jong-un be assassinated? Why or why not?

– Should Yoo Seung-jun and MC Mong be forgiven for evading their military service? Why or why not?

November 22, 2015

Unit 9: Possible Material for Quiz

Filed under: Tests/Exams — richardlstansfield @ 9:12 am

* find the adjectives (Page 164, Exercise 1)

* verb-ed vs. verb-ing adjectives (Page 164, Exercises 2 and 3)

* adjective forms (Page 165, Exercise 6)

* adjective forms of shapes (e.g. circle  circular, etc.)

* description wheels (Page 169, Exercise 2 and Page 170, Exercise 5)

* describing advantages and disadvantages (Page 171, Exercise 6)

* describing objects (Page 171, Exercise 1; Page 172, Exercises 2 and 3; Page 173, Exercise 7; Page 174, Exercise 1)

Unit 9: People

Filed under: Unit 9: People — richardlstansfield @ 8:52 am

In this Unit, you will learn how to describe an object and its functions.

Pair Work
1. What are some famous websites?
2. What do these websites do?
3. Which ones do you like? Why?
4. Who invented these websites?
5. Before the Internet, how did people get information about things?
6. How have social media websites* like Twitter and Facebook changed the lives of people?
* also known as (a.k.a.) social networking services (SNSs)

First Listening Exercise

What websites are mentioned in the video?

Page 160, Exercise 5


Page 161, Exercise 7
Try to complete the table. Then watch the video to check your answers. Then we will go over the answers together.
1. advertise
2. Craig Newark
3. 1996
4. 50
5. encyclopaedia
6. Jimmy Wales
7. 2001
8. 285

Page 161, Exercise 10: Saying Dates

In this video, the new prime minister of Canada, Justin Trudeau, answers a question from a reporter. The reporter says, “Your cabinet, as you said, looks a lot like Canada. I understand that one of the priorities for you was to have a cabinet that was gender-balanced. Why was that so important to you?”
What is Trudeau’s answer?

“_Because_ _it’s_ _2015_.”
twenty fifteen

1. fourteen hundred
2. fifteen fifty
3. two thousand and five
4. two thousand and ten or twenty ten
5. twenty twenty-four or two thousand and twenty-four

Page 162

Look at the picture of “Emperor” Joshua Abraham Norton.
What kind of person do you think he was?
What kind of life do you think he had?

Exercises 2 and 3
Read the sentences in Exercise 2. Then match the words in bold to the definitions in Exercise 3.
3. a. homeless
b. sword
c. funeral
d. emperor
e. remarkable
f. fascinating

Listening Exercise

1. What work do Sam and Yasmin have to do?
– write a history essay on remarkable people
2. Who has done most of their work?
– Yasmin
3. Write down three facts about Joshua Abraham Norton and Joseph Conrad.

Joshua Abraham Norton

He grew up in South Africa and had a business there but it didn’t work.
So then he went to America in 1849 because he thought he could get rich.
To start with he was quite successful, but then his business failed and he lost all his money in 1853.
He became homeless and started living in the streets.
Possibly, he went a bit mad.
In 1859, he declared to everyone in San Francisco that he was the President of America and he started to walk around the streets in a uniform with a big hat and a sword.
He became quite famous.
The people around him called him “emperor” and when the police tried to arrest him people were very angry and he was let free again.
He even made his own paper money and the shops would let him use it.
When he died in 1880 he was still homeless but thirty thousand people came to his funeral.

Joseph Conrad

He was a Polish writer, but he didn’t write in Polish; he wrote in English.
He was a sailor before he became a writer.

Books closed. Listen to the teacher as he tells you about Joseph Conrad, and answer the questions.

1. What was Joseph Conrad’s job?

2. Why was he an extraordinary person?

3. What else did you learn about Joseph Conrad?

Page 166, Exercise 9

Try to write the correct form of the words in brackets in the gaps to complete the text. Then listen to the teacher as he tells the story again.

1. fascinated
2. happy
3. surprising
4. expensive
5. interesting
6. successful
7. believable

Now we will look at root words, word families, and parts of speech.


fascinate (verb)  fascinated (adjective)

happy (adjective)  happiness (noun)
 happily (adverb)

surprise (verb, noun)  surprising (adjective)  surprisingly (adverb)

expense (noun)  expensive (adjective)

interest (verb, noun)  interesting (adjective)  interestingly (adverb)

succeed (verb)  success (noun)  successful (adjective)  successfully (adverb)

Page 164, Exercise 1
Look at the sentences and underline the adjectives in each one.

1. That is amazing!

2. Why are you interested in him?

3. He was a fascinating man.

4. Are you bored?

Page 164, Exercise 2
Underline the words that the adjective describes.

e.g. I gave my girlfriend a beautiful picture.

e.g. I gave my beautiful girlfriend a picture.

1. a. The news was surprising.
b. I was surprised by the news.
2. a. I was always bored when I went to see her.
b. She was boring so I tried not to see her.
3. a. He was excited by the idea for the new business.
b. His idea for the new business was exciting.
4. a. The man was very interested in my story.
b. The man told me a very interesting story.
5. a. The walk was very tiring.
b. The walk took a long time because I was tired.
6. a. What a fascinating picture!
b. My friend was fascinated by the picture.

Prefixes and Suffixes

Prefixes: come at the beginning of a word

happy  unhappy

man  superman

Suffixes: come at the end of a word

walk  walked

Page 164, Exercise 3

1. Adjectives ending in _-ing_ describe the reason for a feeling (e.g. situation).

2. Adjectives ending in _-ed_ describe what people feel as a result of something.

“My friend was horrified by the horrifying movie.”


. Tell me about an exciting hobby.
. Tell me about an interesting person you know.
. Tell me about what makes you feel very tired.
. Tell me about a book or video that fascinated you.
. Tell me about the last time you were bored.
. Tell me about a boring job.

Page 165, Exercise 5

1. Suffixes come at the beginning/end of a word.

2. The suffixes –ing and –ed often make words into adjectives/nouns.

Page 165, Exercise 6

Write the adjective form of the verbs and nouns.

excite // exciting // excited // excitable
surprise // surprising // surprised
believe // believable
succeed // successful
comfort // comforted // comforting // comfortable
relax // relaxed // relaxing
shock // shocked // shocking // shockable
expense // expensive
happiness // happy
politeness // polite

Page 167, Exercise 1

Match the shapes to the nouns in the box.

1. diamond

2. square

3. oval

4. circle

5. triangle

6. rectangle

7. semicircle


Stressed vs. Reduced Syllables
– more loudly – more softly
– more slowly – more quickly
– more clearly – less clearly

e.g. conditioner

# syllables =

stressed syllable = conditioner

e.g. extraordinary

# syllables =

stressed syllable = extraordinary
Page 167, Exercise 2

Underline the stressed syllable in each word.

1. diamond

2. square

3. oval

4. circle

5. triangle

6. rectangle

7. semicircle


1. diamond

2. square

3. oval

4. circle

5. triangle

6. rectangle

7. semicircle

Turn each noun into an adjective.

1. diamond 

2. square 

3. oval 

4. circle 

5. triangle 

6. rectangle 

7. semicircle 


1. diamond  diamond-shaped

2. square  square

3. oval  oval

4. circle  circular

5. triangle  triangular

6. rectangle  rectangular

7. semicircle  semicircular

Page 167, Exercise 5

Where is the stress in each adjective form? Is it the same as the nouns?


1. diamond  diamond-shaped

2. square  square

3. oval  oval

4. circle  circular

5. triangle  triangular

6. rectangle  rectangular

7. semicircle  semicircular
Page 168, Exercise 7

Listen and match each invention with both its inventor and its picture

Invention Inventor
1. hand-dryer a
2. egg chair c
3. wheelbarrow a
4. climbing car b

Picture 1  hand dryer
Picture 2  wheelbarrow
Picture 3  climbing car
Picture 4  egg chair

Page 168, Exercise 8

Listen again and write a word in each gap.

1. (kind of) round
2. colours
3. comfortable
4. two
5. square
6. easily
7. expensive
8. rectangular
9. quickly
10. oval
11. space
12. buildings


. Which of the inventions do you think is the best and why?

. What objects do you use every day, and why?
. Which objects are most important to you, and why?
. Which objects would you like to own in the future, and why?

Page 169, Exercise 2
Write the words in the box in the correct sections of the description wheel.
8. Internet display


1. to provide entertainment
2. to provide information

3. black

4. flat
5. rectangular

6. large
7. 1 meter wide

8. Internet display
9. high definition
10. heavy

11. expensive

12. plastic
13. glass

Which object is described in the wheel?

 a TV

Page 170, Exercise 4

United Kingdom North America
mechanical torch flashlight

Correct the words in italics in the description.


(1) five
 two

(2) circle
 round / cylindrical

(3) square
 circular

(4) short
 long
Page 170, Exercise 5
Complete the description wheel with words and phrases from the description in Exercise 4.

– pale blue
– black

round / cylindrical


– easy to carry / portable
– good for the environment

not given, but possibly cheap

– plastic
– glass

to provide/give light; there is a handle to wind up to give power

Page 171, Exercise 6

List the advantages and disadvantages of the flashlight (“mechanical torch”).

– easy to use
– does not need electricity
– small
– easy to take with you (e.g. on journeys, in a car, etc.)
– can be used anywhere
– can be used for a long time (by rewinding)

– have to wind it up to start it
(so it may not give light immediately and
might not be so good if you are tired)
– might be fragile
– might not be bright

Pair Work

Student A  go to Page 195
Student B  go to Page 198

Step 1
Student A describes the vacuum cleaner to Student B. Student B listens and labels the picture.

Step 2
Student B describes the shopping trolley to Student A. Student A listens and labels the picture.

Use the description of the flashlight on Page 170 as a model.

* It’s made of ___. (“It’s made of plastic and glass.”)

* heavy / light / long / short / thin / thick
(“The handle is long and thin.”)

* It has ___ parts.
(“It has two parts: a handle and the main body.”)

* You can … (“You can pull the handle out.”)

* It’s used for verb-ing … / It’s used to (verb) …
(“The handle’s used to wind up the flashlight to give it power.”)

* diamond-shaped / square / oval / circular / triangular / rectangular / semicircular

* at the front/at the back/on the side/on the bottom/on the top
(“On the side there is a handle.”)
Page 171, Exercise 1
Match the headings with the information about a radio.

1. a
2. c
3. f
4. b
5. e
6. d

Page 172, Exercise 2
Write a word in each gap in the description of the radio.

1. main
2. made
3. for
4. for
5. lets
6. to

Page 172, Exercise 3

1. What’s it made of?
It’s made of plastic and metal.
2. What does it look like?
It’s rectangular and has a handle.
3. What’s it used for?
It’s used for listening to radio programs where there is no electricity.
4. What does the antenna let you do?
The antenna lets people receive different radio programs.
5. What is the solar panel used to do?
The solar panel is used to get energy from the sun.

Let’s take another look at the phrases from Exercise 2.

a. is used for + verb-ing

The radio is used for listening to radio programs where there is no electricity.

b. is a thing for + verb-ing

The handle is a thing for winding the radio to get power.

c. is used to + verb (infinitive)

The solar panel is used to get energy from the sun.

d. lets + subject + verb (infinitive)

The antenna lets people receive different radio programs.

e. is made of + noun

The radio is made of plastic and metal.

f. has … main parts

The radio has two main parts.

Page 173, Exercise 7
Choose an object but don’t tell your partner what it is. Your partner asks you some questions to find out what it is.

– What does it look like?
– What’s it made of?
– What’s it used for?
– How many parts does it have?
– What are its advantages?
– What are its disadvantages?
– Is it ___?

 functions / color / shape / size / features / weight / price / materials / # of parts
 You see it …
 It looks like a ___.

Page 174, Exercise 1
Choose and object and make notes about it. Here are some examples: smart phone, car, laptop, watch, glasses, bus, etc.

Page 174, Exercise 2
Work with a partner. Take turns telling each other about the object, but don’t say the name. You have to guess the name of each other’s object.

 functions / color / shape / size / features / weight / price / materials / # of parts
– It’s made of …
– It has ___ parts …
– It’s used for [verb-ing] … / It’s used to [verb] … / It’s a thing for [verb-ing] …
– It lets + subject + verb
– Its advantages are …
– Its disadvantages are …
– You see it …
– It looks like ___.

 functions / color / shape / size / features / weight / price / materials / # of parts
 You see it …
 It looks like a ___.

– What does it look like?
– What’s it made of?
– What’s it used for?
– What is the ___ used for?
– What are its advantages?
– What are its disadvantages?
– Is it ___?

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