University English: the blog for ESL students

May 27, 2010

The Generation of Girl Groups

Filed under: student presentations — richardlstansfield @ 5:37 am

– Glossary –
1. debut : [noun] the first public appearance of an entertainer, sports player etc or of something new and important.
2. release : [noun] a new CD, video, film etc that is available to buy or see.
3. impudent : [adjective] rude or disrespectful, or do something they have no right to do.
4. popularity : [adjective] when something or someone is liked or supported by a lot of people.
5. various : [adjective] many different types of something.
6. virtual : [adjective] made, done, seen etc on the Internet or on a computer, rather than in the real world.
7. choreography: [noun] the process of designing dances for a performance
8. futuristic: [adjective] very modern and strange and seeming to come from some imagined time in the future
9. evoke: [verb] to make someone remember something or feel an emotion
10. vivid: [adjective] 1. IMAGE, Vivid descriptions or memories produce strong, clear images in your mind. 2. COLOUR, A vivid colour is very bright.
11. conjunction : [noun] the act of conjoining; combination.
12. consecutive : [adjective] following one another in uninterrupted succession or order; successive
13. length : [noun] the longest extent of anything as measured from end to end: the length of a river.
14. ambassador : [noun] a diplomatic official of the highest rank, sent by one sovereign or state to another as its resident representative (ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary).
15. cheat on: [phrasal verb] to have a secret sexual relationship with someone who is not your usual sexual partner
16. attraction: [noun] 1. GOOD THING, something that makes people come to a place or want to do a particular thing a tourist attraction 2. FEELING, when you like someone, especially sexually, because of the way they look or behave
17. infectious: [adjective] 1.able to pass a disease from one person, animal or plant to another 2. describes something that has an effect on everyone who is present and makes them want to join in
18. consecutive: [adjective] describes events, numbers, etc. that follow one after another without an interruption

There are more than ten girl groups in Korea. We call it the “girl group generation”. Why do you think there is this girl group boom? Around 1990, the first girl group generation came out. It included S.E.S., Fin.K.L. and Babybox. After taht Shakra and Papaya came alone. These days we can listen to all girl groups’ songs with ease. We chose four girl groups from among all girl groups: Brown eyed girls, Girl’s generation, 2NE1 and finally Wonder Girls.

The brown eyed girls

The Brown Eyed Girls debuted with their first album “Your Story” in March 2006. There are four members in the Brown Eyed Girls, the leader Zea, Nareusya, Mi-ryo and Ga-In. The Brown Eyed Girls Have been known to the public as good singers whose voices are unique. In 2008, the Brown Eyed Girls released their first mini album “LOVE”. At that time, the Brown Eyed Girls became popular and for the first time Brown Eyed Girls was No. 1 on the music show. Then they released their third album “Abracadabra” in July 2009. The Brown Eyed Girls showed off flashy dance moves, called the “si-geon-bang(impudent) dance”. This dance touched off a dance craze. The popularity of the Brown Eyed Girls peaked through Abracadabra. Abracadabra was selected as a masterpiece of the year 2009 by the composers because of their popularity and musicality. And Abracadabra was awarded two gold medals at The Seventh Pop Music Awards of Korea in March 2010. The Brown Eyed Girls had another hit through “Sign”.

Their success was different from that of other girl groups. Brown Eyed Girls stand out because of their sexy and chic features. And Brown Eyed Girls have coined the term “adult idols(Seongindol)”. Now each of the Brown Eyed Girls’ are active in various areas.

Zea means ‘the most beautiful voice’. Zea sings very well as her stage name. She sang many different kinds of background music of dramas such as ‘Chu-no’, ‘Boys over Flowers’, ‘East of Eden’ and ‘Lovers in Paris’ etc. Recently, Nareusya confessed her real age on the TV show ‘Gangsimsang’. She was not born in 1983 but in 1981 . This honest confession of hers got positive responses from the public. Nareusya became popular in ‘Invincible Youth’ as she showed her funny personality. Miryo is a female rapper. Recently on the awards show called “Daejongsang,”, Miryo fell off on the stage during performance. As a result, netizens gave her the nickname “Kkwadang Mi-ryo”. This mistake gave a big smile to the public because she fell off during a powerful & charismatic performance. Ga-in is the youngest member of the Brown Eyed Girls. Now Ga-In appears on a TV variety show called ‘We got married’. Her virtual husband is Jo-Gwon. Jo-Gwon is a singer and the leader of boy band 2AM. The couple of Ga-In and Jo-Gwon are called “tiny couple(Adam couple)”. The public is interested in watching the tiny couple on the show. Recently when Ga-In wrote “cold” on her website, Jo-Gwon wrote back, “Come here. I’ll hug you,” to her. This act of love became the talk of the town. [1]

2NE1

2NE1 means new evolution of 21century. 2NE1’s members are CL, Park Bom, Park Sandara and Gong Min-gi. 2NE1 debuted on a Lollipop cellular phone commercial starring with BIG BANG which gained popularity. By this, they were called ‘a girl version of BIG BANG’. At this time, Sandara’s peculiar hair was the talk of the town.

Their debut song is ‘Fire’, which is a hip hop song with reggae rhythm. 2NE1 pursues hip hop genre. It is differentiated from other girl groups. Fire’s choreography is dynamic and powerful and their choreography feature is description of lyrics. Fire has two versions of music videos. one is a street version and another is a space version. They danced on shabby and dark alley in the street version of music video. By contrast, the space version shows colorful, gorgeous and various scenery. Space version is more intense, active and futuristic than the street version is. In the space version, CL rides a bike with wearing unique glasses in four-dimensional space, Park bom sits on a big space A card, Sandara park dressed in an Indian traditional costume and she mimics Indian classical dances. 2NE1’s fashion style evoked considerable comments because their fashion shows a very unique, strong personality and the colors are vivid like I’ve never seen before. They hit number 1 on a music chart right after their debut.

After Fire was a big hit, 2NE1 released their first mini album. This includes ‘I don’t care’. whose content is that even if my boyfriend is cheating on me, I don’t care. This ‘I don’t care’ was a huge success. ‘I don’t care’ was repeated in their music lyrics. In unison, they shake their index fingers. This choreography is very easy, so everybody can follow. They represent tough, strong and cool girls. They also have many female fans despite the fact that they are a girl group.

Member of 2NE1 also released each solo songs. Sandara park’s solo song was ‘Kiss’. This song was used in on beer advertisements. In the beer commercial, she acts with a korean famous actor, Lee Min-ho. Their kiss scene was a hot issue among korean fans. Park bom’s solo song is ‘You And I’. This song is hip hop with R&B. Her unique vocal sounds better in this song. CL and Min-Gi released their duet ‘Please don’t go’. ‘Please don’t go’ is a hip hop and dance song with a jaunty rhythm. We can feel 2NE1’s unusual attraction from these songs.[2]

Girls’ generation

Girls’ Generation is one of South Korea’s top female pop groups. The nine-members girls group are often referred to as SNSD, the acronym for their Korean name So Nyeo Shi Dae. The nine members of SNSD are Yuri, Yoona, Tiffany, Taeyeon (leader), Sunny, Sooyoung, Seohyun, Jessica, and Hyoyeon. [Check their individual profiles].

SNSD made their official debut in August 2007 with single Into the New World. A reality show Girls Go To School were filmed in conjunction with their debut. Most of the members have been involved in some projects prior to the group debut though, e.g. in magazines, TV commercials and music videos etc.

SNSD released Girls’ Generation, their first full album, in November 2007. The title track received mixed reviews, but its second track Kissing You became a hit on various music charts in early 2008. The album is re-released as Baby Baby in March 2008 and collectively sold over 100,000 copies by April, an impressive number in Korean music market.
SNSD were back in early 2009 with mini-album Gee; the title song was a huge hit, topping various musical charts and breaking various consecutive #1 records. They released their 2nd mini-album, Tell Me Your Wish (Genie) in June with a much talk-about marine girls theme; the album becomes a huge success as well.
As usual the girls were also busy with other projects, e.g. reality shows Horror Factory and Girls’ Generation’s Hello Baby. HF was cancelled prematurely though due to poor ratings, while GGHB achieved moderate success. The girls ended 2009 on high note with their first solo concert in Seoul; and they were arguably the biggest winners at most of the year end music awards.

SNSD kicked off 2010 with their second full length album Oh! in January. It did well and became the girls’ 4th consecutive albums to achieve 100,000 in sales. A repackaged album RunDevilRun was released in March.

SNSD are also popular product ambassadors, appearing in various commercials such as for Viliv PMP, Goobne Chicken, Samyang Noodle, and LG Cyon etc. [3]

Wonder Girls

Five young girls signed and groomed by well-known producer, Park Jin Young for his talent agency, JYP Entertainment. They took Korea by storm with their retro hit, “Tell Me” in the latter part of 2007. Who are the Wonder Girls exactly?

There were five members in Wonder Girls, Sun Ye (leader), Ye Eun, HyunA, Sun Mi & So Hee. All were signed through auditions and Ye Eun was the last to be signed after being rejected initially. They then underwent training in JYP Entertainment under the tutelage of acclaimed singer/producer/CEO, Park Jin Young for five years. They finally made their official debut on Feb 11th 2007.

Then Hyun-A was withdrawn from the group by her parents, citing health concern. Wonder Girls was however back to a 5-member group with the addition of Yoo Bin in early September. As you all know, Hyun-A is in another girl group called ‘4 minutes’ now.

The Wonder Girls made their comeback on KBS Music Bank on September 7th 2007, with “Tell Me“, a 80s track from their debut album, “The Wonder Years“.

On October 5th 2007 when they appeared on KBS Music Bank again as they did a special stage with Big Bang performing first, “Tell Me” and then “Lies”.

And the popularity of “Tell Me” just kept snowballing and it’s effect is still being felt to this day. “Tell Me” had a telling effect as the infectious tune and easy dance steps were picked up by fans and non-fans. Numerous UCC videos of normal folks doing “Tell Me” dance started appearing on video sites which further pushed up the popularity level.

“Tell Me” has clearly defined Wonder Girls career and the turning point of their career. It has helped them to stand out from a slew of rival groups and something from which they can build from in future.

Their new single, “So Hot”, was released on May 22, 2008; the song topped online charts soon after.

The single “Nobody” was released in the early autumn of 2008. The song went to #1 on KBS’ Music Bank, staying there for four consecutive weeks. “Tell Me”, “Nobody” also sparked a dance craze. At the 2008 MNet KM Music Festival Awards, the Wonder Girls won three awards, including “Song of the Year” and “Best Music Video” for “Nobody”, and “Best Female Group”.

The Wonder Girls tour started on February 28, 2009 in Bangkok, Thailand. The Wonder Girls, along with mentor JYP, then held concerts in the United States, visiting Los Angeles, La Mirada and New York City on March 8. They also performed for a small crowd at MTV Iggy. They released their english version of “Nobody” in the United States. JYP Entertainment announced that the Wonder Girls would be joining the Jonas Brothers on the North American leg of the Jonas Brothers World Tour 2009. It was a huge opportunity to debut in the Unite State.

On January 22, 2010, it was announced that Sunmi would be postponing her musical career to pursue an academic career; Hye-rim (Lim), a JYP trainee, took her place. The music video for 2 Different Tears premiered on YouTube on April 6, 2010. The music video features Park Jin-Young and Korean-American comedian Bobby Lee. Former member Sun Mi can also be seen in the background in some scenes.

Now, Wonder Girls are in Korea temporarily and they are ready to make a big progress to make a huge success abroad such as the United States, Thailand and China.

– References –

[1 ]http://enc.daum.net/dic100/contents.do?query1=10XX161703
http://enc.daum.net/dic100/contents.do?query1=10XX252154
http://ent.jknews.co.kr/article/news/20091107/6009852.htm
[2] http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/2NE1
[3] http://enc.daum.net/dic100/contents.do?query1=10XX124939
http://enc.daum.net/dic100/contents.do?query1=10XX167021
http://blog.naver.com/crazykillme?Redirect=Log&logNo=140040731527
http://episodezero.tistory.com/190
http://pokerface.tistory.com/235
http://mildclimat.egloos.com/1434941
http://artofdie.tistory.com/145
[4] http://wondergirls.wordpress.com/wonder-girls-introduction/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wonder_Girls

– Discussion Questions –

1. Why do you think people are crazy about girl groups now days nowadays?
2. Which one is your favorite girl group? and why?
3. What do you think about the Wonder Girls’ debut in the United States?

Class # 171

Group 1. 김예지, 모성웅, 이솔희, 한정아

May 26, 2010

Nonsense Dramas

Filed under: student presentations — richardlstansfield @ 2:25 am

– Glossary –
1. Neglect – [VERB] If you neglect someone or something, you fail to look after them properly.
2. Criticize – [VERB] If you criticize someone or something, you express your disapproval of them by saying what you think is wrong with them.
3. Vicarious – [ADJ] A vicarious pleasure or feeling is experienced by watching, listening to, or reading about other people doing something, rather than by doing it yourself.

These days nonsense dramas are hot issue. Nonsense drama is defined as “dramas with shocking stories.” These dramas have too much fiction, immorality, and violence.
Nonsense dramas have been broadcasted so much on Korean televisions, neglecting their bad influence over under aged minors. Among the kinds, there are two which their popularity and ratings far exceeded others. “Boys than flower”, mainly focusing its story line on school life of rich and popular, had been criticized by people for its unreal conditions and violence[1].

Main viewers of the drama is known as young girls in their teens, whom wanting to get vicarious satisfaction through watching love parade between “Kum jan di” and “Goo jun pyo.” Kum jan di is a poor high school girl who gets into a private school for rich children by luck and Goo jun pyo is son of a rich family who falls in love with Jan-di. Story line doesn’t seem far off from all time favorite fairy tale “Cinderella.” However, the drama is containing violent scenes, Kum jan di almost getting raped at the school’s swimming pool and getting bullied by other school members for instance. Considering the age of viewers, such scenes should’ve been rethought before the broadcast.
Another nonsense drama in dispute is “Temptation of wife.” Story of abandoned wife wanting to get revenge on her ex-husband is considered as the most blind ended drama yet. It is full of swearing and slapping. It’s main story line itself is a taboo in Korean society, where Confucianism is thought to be very important[2]. Even with it’s immorality and violence, it’s ratings exceeded 30%[3].

Such dramas lure the viewers quickly and easily. For television drama, which it’s rating is directly connected with earning, such story line could be helpful. However considering the viewers and it’s showing time (ranging from 8p.m to 11p.m), influences that these dramas can have over people should be reconsidered. Some worry that “Boys than Flower” might increase the in school violence, which is already a big issue in Korean society. They also claim that “Temptation of wife” could have effect on divorce rate. Whatever the effect is, these dramas should be reconsidered from major broadcasting channels, for the possibility of unprotected young viewers. [4]

– References –

[1] http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=106&oid=003&aid=0002514528
[2] http://www.asiae.co.kr/news/view.htm?idxno=2009022501313881716&nvr=y
[3] http://www.mydaily.co.kr/news/read.html?newsid=200908211322321110&ext=na
[4] http://www.daejonilbo.com/news/newsitem.asp?pk_no=840236

– Discussion Questions –

1. Why do you think nonsense dramas are popular among people even with their bad social influences?
2. Do you think there will still be nonsense dramas in the future? Why do you think so?
3. Why do you think people write and produce nonsense dramas?

Class # 171

Group 2. 이기쁨, 박소희, 강다은, 김남호

May 25, 2010

Title : Korea in Vancouver winter Olympic

Filed under: student presentations — richardlstansfield @ 9:04 am

*Glossary
Marvelous : [VERB] If you marvel at something, you express your great surprise, wonder, or admiration.
Advertisements : 1.[NOUN] An advertisement is an announcement in a newspaper, on television, or on a poster about something such as a product, event, or job.
2.[NOUN] If you say that an example of something is an advertisement for that thing in general, you mean that it shows how good that thing is.
Incident : [NOUN] An incident is something that happens, often something that is unpleasant.
Referee : 1.[NOUN] The referee is the official who controls a sports event such as a football game or a boxing match.
2.[NOUN] A referee is a person who gives you a reference, for example when you are applying for a job.
Decision : 1. [NOUN] When you make a decision, you choose what should be done or which is the best of various possible actions.
2. [NOUN] Decision is the act of deciding something or the need to decide something.
3. [NOUN] Decision is the ability to decide quickly and definitely what to do.
Athlete : 1. [NOUN] An athlete is a person who does a sport, especially athletics, or track and field events.
2. [NOUN] You can refer to someone who is fit and athletic as an athlete.
Ignore : 1. [VERB] If you ignore someone or something, you pay no attention to them.
2. [VERB] If you say that an argument or theory ignores an important aspect of a situation, you are criticizing it because it fails to consider that aspect or to take it into account.
Discriminate : 1. [VERB] If you can discriminate between two things, you can recognize that they are different.
2. [VERB] To discriminate against a group of people or in favour of a group of people means to unfairly treat them worse or better than other groups.

*Text

On February 26, 2010 the Vancouver winter Olympics ended. Our country, Korea, made a marvelous new record in these Olympics. We got many gold medals in short track, speed skating and figure skating. In figure skating Kim Yu-na made a new world record and become figure skating queen. She also become an advertisement star. In short track, Mo tae-bum and Lee sang-hwa won the gold medals at the same time. It is the first time this has happened. People of the world were surprised by that.

Also in the men’s relay race, they won the medal. But in the women’s relay race, they lost the medal because of a referee’s decision. This incident gave all Koreans a shock. In speed skating, Lee sang-hoon had a wonderful result. He trained for only six-months in speed skating. And he got the gold medal.

There were same athletes who tried their best in skiing, ski jumping and bobsleighing however, they didn’t get gold medals. Still, people always remember the athletes who won medals and ignore other athletes who didn’t win medal. Therefore, we shouldn’t discriminate against athletes who didn’t get medal and should be proud of every athletes who tried their best in the Olympics.

*Reference
1. http://www.koreaherald.com/sports/Detail.jsp?newsMLId=20100216000062
2. http://www.koreaherald.com/sports/Detail.jsp?newsMLId=20100224000082
3. http://www.koreaherald.com/sports/Detail.jsp?newsMLId=20100226000075
4. http://www.koreaherald.com/sports/Detail.jsp?newsMLId=20100227000045

*Pictures
1)http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=104&oid=003&aid=0003093104
2)http://imagesearch.naver.com/search.naver?where=idetail&rev=10&query=%BA%A5%C4%ED%B9%F6%20%BF%C3%B8%B2%C7%C8&from=image&ac=-1&sort=0&res_fr=0&res_to=0&merge=0&spq=0&start=8&a=pho_l&f=tab&r=8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fblog.naver.com%2Fdshj0301%3FRedirect%3DLog%26logNo%3D150081802120&thumbnail=http%3A%2F%2Fthumbview01.search.naver.com%2Fthumbnails%3Fq%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fblogfiles.naver.net%2F20100228_295%2Fdshj0301_1267343505739GQrzc_jpg%2F%25BA%25A5%25C4%25ED%25B9%25F6%25BF%25C3%25B8%25B2%25C7%25C8_%25B1%25E8%25BF%25AC%25BE%25C6_%25C7%25C7%25C4%25D1%25BD%25BA%25C4%25C9%25C0%25CC%25C6%25C3%25BC%25BC%25B0%25E8%25BD%25C5%25B1%25E2%25B7%25CF228.56%25B1%25DD%25B8%25DE%25B4%25DE_dshj0301.jpg&signature=672371125593&gdid=90000003_0000000000000022F1928F88&a_q=&n_q=&o_q=
3)http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=107&oid=073&aid=0002018804
4)http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=104&oid=003&aid=0003093104

*Discussion question
1. have ever ignored athletes who didn’t win a medal in the Olympics? If so, why did you do that?
2. Do you think the government should reword reward athletes who tired tried their best but didn’t get medals?
3. Are you proud of Korea? Why or why not?

*Class : 34
*Group : 1

Super star couples’ babies

Filed under: student presentations — richardlstansfield @ 6:15 am

*Glossary
-pregnancy : [noun] when a woman is pregnant
-overwhelmingly : [adjective] very strong in effect or large in amount
-representative : [adjective] the same as other people or things in a particular group
-merge : [verb] If two or more things merge, they combine or join,
and if you merge two or more things, you combine or join them.
-adolescent : [noun] a young person who is between being a child and an adult
-mould : [noun] CONTAINER [C] a container that is used to make something in a particular shape

*Text
These days, super star couples’ baby is a hot topic of discussion.
All over the world, many stars and their babies are focus on the internet.[1]
Korean stars’ and Hollywood stars’ babies have their pictures taken by people.

We are going to talk about super star couples’ babies.
Many Korean super star couples’ weddings are topical news.
Also news of their pregnancies is overwhelmingly on the internet.
For example, there are the couples of Tablo&Kang hye jeong and Jang dong gun&Go so young.[2]

Are they cute?
Especially, our focus is on the couple of Kim hye su&Yu hae jin,
because they are one of Korea’s representative couples they are seen as “beauty and the beast.”
Therefore, we are curious as to what their baby’s face will look like.[3]
Moreover, people use computer programs to make pictures of a couple’s future baby.
The computer merges the pictures of the man and the woman to make the baby picture.[4]

Global interests about star couples’ babies
Also, we are interested in Hollywood stars’ babies.
Among them, we focus on Suri who is Tom Cruise&Katie Holmes’ baby.[5]
The reasons are her cute looks and fashions.[6]

Our interests of their future
Recently, we become interested in not only super star couples but also their babies.
They are kids, adolescents, and adults.
They will be ordinary people or star like their parents.[7]

Immoderate interests about star couples’ babies
Recently, stars’ babies appear on the SBS entertainment program “Bung eo bbang(“Bread from the same mould”)”
with parents.[8]

The program is a example that we are interested in stars’ babies.
Stars’ family is friendly to us.
Anytime, when we want to know, through the internet, we can get their information.

*References
-[1] http://osen.mt.co.kr/news/view.html?gid=G1005030008
-[2] http://www.dailian.co.kr/news/news_view.htm?id=201918&sc=naver&kind=menu_code&keys=75
-[3] http://www.hkn24.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=47210
-[4] http://isplus.joins.com/article/article.html?aid=1316458
-[5] http://blogs.babble.com/famecrawler/2010/05/10/katie-holmes-suri-cruise-get-glamorous-on-mothers-day/
-[6] http://blog.naver.com/leejin90?Redirect=Log&logNo=70080811115
-[7] http://www.maxmovie.com/movie_info/sha_news_view.asp?newsType=&page=&contain=&keyword=&mi_id=MI0088588577
-[8] http://www.newsen.com/news_view.php?uid=201005151855421001

*Discussion Questions
1. Stars’ babies are not stars but we get their private information through the media. Do they want you think they like that or not? Why?
2. Is the pictures of a couple’s future baby similar to real baby? Are the pictures of couples’ possible future babies similar to the pictures of real babies?
3. Is their future happy in immoderate interests?

–> ??

*Class#171
Group#5
Members’ Names : Maeng Jihyun, Woo yoonkyoung, Jo saejin, Bae eunbi

About Diet(Losing Weight)

Filed under: student presentations — richardlstansfield @ 3:30 am

[Glossary]
– Consist of : [v] (consist of) be composed of.
(consist in) have as an essential feature.
– Basal metabolic rate : [n] the rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to
maintain vital functions such as breathing and keeping warm.
– Protein : [n] any of a class of organic compounds forming structural components
of body tissues and constituting an important part of the diet.
– Melancholia : [n] severe depression.
– Misconception : [N] a false or mistaken idea or belief.
– Flexible : [ad] 1 capable of bending easily without breaking. 2 able to change or
be changed to respond to different circumstances.
DERIVATIVES flexibility noun flexibly adverb.
– Benefit : [n] 1 advantage or profit. 2 a payment made by the state or an
insurance scheme to someone entitled to receive it, e.g. an unemployed person. 3 a public performance to raise money for a charity.
[v] (benefited or benefitted, benefiting or benefitting) 1 receive an advantage; profit. 2 bring advantage to.

[Text]
When does the diet start?[1]
– There was a person name who was William Benting in England in 1864. He was too fat to tie his shoes string by bending his waist.
– He published the book called “About diet”. And it records the first book ever written about diet.
– Also, the weighing machine had propagated in 1900’s, people started to pay attention and calculate calories.

Celebrities Diet
– Example of Girls’ generation [2]
Famous girl group called ‘Girls’ generation’ eat 800 calories a day. For a grown woman, the recommended daily intake of calories is 2000. It means they eat a half lesser than common women. This is very effective way of losing weight but it has a problem. Their meals consist of fruits, vegetables and little amount of seafood. If they keep eating like this, a basal metabolic rate is fallen down.
Image #1

– Example of Nicole (Denmark Diet)[3]
Denmark diet plans a meal of mainly protein. Nicole did this diet with exercising because she wants to be better looking. It helps losing a heap of weight but it has problems. If you don’t follow the meal, you have to start again and the meal consists of just eggs and black coffee; it brings about lower physical functional and melancholia. It’s a good way to control your meal and do regular exercise rather than following this diet.


Image #2,3

Good ways of ‘Losing Weight’
In these days, people are in competition with losing their weight. They want to lose weight in a short time. For this reason, they are in a misconception of diet and use a wrong way. Some of people takes ‘Diet pills’ thoughtlessly and go on a ‘One food diet’. Some of them even fasted to lose weight. They get stressed and unhealthy life because of this way. [4]Appropriate exercise and high protein- low carb diet are helpful for losing weight. and also good for healthy life. [5]Most people believe that a demanding exercise and great lose of sweat are good way to lose weight, but it could be very dangerous.[6] If you lose weight rapidly in a wrong way, it damages your health and has yo-yo dieting. So that’s why you should do exercise.


Image #4,5

We’ll introduce 3 ways of diet – yoga, weight training, and walking.

– Yoga (Hot Yoga)
First of all, yoga is far from the diet, I mean it only helps making shapes and improves flexibility of the body. [7]I’ll talk about hot -yoga. It is effective of aerobic exercise increasing the heart rate and good for your skin care because sweating rids the body of its wastes.[8]
Hot yoga is one of popular exercise and this picture comes from the TV Program me called ‘we got married’.

Image #6
– Weight training
Next, We‘ll talk about Weight training. Most people do aerobic exercise but it has limit for losing a lot of weight. For this reason, you need weight training if you lose weight efficiently.[9]
– Walking
This picture is about an advertisement of walking shoes. Walking helps making good body shapes and we can walk in every time and everywhere. So people are getting more interested in walking.

Image #7

Benefits of Lose Weight
Many people want to lose their weight. What kind of benefits can you get if you lose weight? Above all we can get slimmer body and better appearance. Moreover we get confidence in the relationship. Lastly the most important thing is we are good for our health.

[References]
[1] http://www.hanmidiet.co.kr/dieat/dieat.asp
[2] http://blog.naver.com/amr0923/40096741432
[3] http://blog.naver.com/jiwongg/10084089371
[4] -http://mbn.mk.co.kr/news/newsRead.php?vodCode=479866&category=mbn00007 -http://article.joins.com/article/article.asp?Total_ID=4134934
[5] http://article.joins.com/article/article.asp?Total_ID=4134934
[6] http://www.cyworld.com/skcareers/3600073
[7] http://www.cyworld.com/zzjr2/3227154
[8] http://enc.daum.net/dic100/contents.do?query1=10XX474910
[9] http://blog.naver.com/jjw4610?Redirect=Log&logNo=70082711533

[Discussion Questions]
– What do you think about the diets that celebrities use? (e.g kara and the Denmark diet)
– Have you ever tried to lose weight? Did you succeed or not?
– What do you think about losing weight’s the benefits or problems? at losing weight are the benefits of, or problems with, losing weight?

Class # 171

[Group# , Member’s name]
Group 4.
박찬석 , 신하림 , 이솔지 , 조은빈

Singer and actor Choi Jin-young

Filed under: student presentations — richardlstansfield @ 3:17 am

Glossary:

suicide: (noun) when you intentionally kill yourself

apparent: (adjective) seeming to exist or be true

autopsy: (noun) a medical examination of a dead body to discover the exact cause of death

shock: (noun): a big, unpleasant surprise

clutch: (verb) to hold something tightly

flounder: (verb) when a relationship, organization, or plan fails or begins to experience problems

depression: (noun) when you feel very unhappy, or a mental illness that makes you feel very unhappy

procession: (noun) a line of people or vehicles that moves forward slowly as part of a ceremony or public event

support: (verb) to help someone emotionally or in a practical way

funeral: (noun) a ceremony for burying or burning the body of a dead person

Choi Jin-young, the brother of the late actress Choi Jin-sil, was found dead of an apparent suicide, Monday. He was 39.
According to the hospital, Choi had red marks on his neck, but an autopsy would be needed to find a definitive cause of death.

His death comes as a shock especially as his late sister, a popular actress, hung herself in a suicide Oct. 2, 2008.
Last month, he had said that he will go back to acting.

Choi started his acting career in 1993 in the popular drama “Our Heaven.” His resemblance to his popular sister gave him a head start in his career, while his young image helped him gain recognition in various dramas, commercials and even films.

Choi’s acting career floundered but in 1999, he returned to the stage as a singer using the name SKY. His first album “Final Fantasy” was a success with the popular number “Forever” topping music charts. He released his third and last album in 2004.

In 2007, he returned to acting with a supporting role in the drama “It’s Okay to Love,” but failed to catch much attention.

Photos of him in tears clutching his sister’s picture shook the nation, and fans wept with him as he led her funeral procession. Acting upon his late sister’s wishes, he belatedly enrolled in Hanyang University to study acting last year.

It was known that Choi had been suffering from depression and even tried to kill himself on his sister’s birthday last year. He was sent to the hospital immediately and recovered after his previous attempt.

*References
http://english.chosun.com/search/search.htmlcategory=english&keywordChoiJinYoung
http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2010/04/07/2010040700996.html
http://joongangdaily.joins.com/article/view.asp=2918568
http://joongangdaily.joins.com/article/view.asp2918461
http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2009/08/27/2009082700843.html

*Discussion Questions
1. What is your opinion about the real reason of Choi Jin Young’s suicide? Why do you think Choi Jin-young committed suicide?

2. Do you think Choi Jin Young’s suicide was good choice?
If not? Why? If not, why not?

3. Have you ever think thought about suicide?
If yes? Why? and When? If so, then why? And when?

4. What do you think that Choi Jin Young & Choi Jin Sil’s suicide affect sociality?

Do you think that Choi Jin-shil’s and Choi Jin-young’s suicides affected society? If so, then how?

Class # 137

Group # 5

Unit 5: Growing up

Filed under: lessons — richardlstansfield @ 2:57 am

When you were a child, did you … ? Tell me about it.

– have a sleepover with your friends?

– learn how to swim?

– get into trouble with your parents?

– have a close friend?

——————————————————————-

Page 44

Books closed.

Listen and complete the story of Ling’s life.

Ling’s parents were born in _____ [1].

In _____ [2], they moved to _____ [3] .

Then Ling was born. Ling and her parents lived there for _____ [4] years.

Then they moved to _____ [5] in the United States.

They lived there for _____ [6] years.

Then they moved to _____ [7] _____ [8] years ago.

Answers:

1. Hong Kong

2. 1986

3. Sao Paulo, Brazil

4. six

5. Seattle

6. ten

7. San Francisco

8. three

May 24, 2010

Natural Disasters

Filed under: student presentations — richardlstansfield @ 8:33 am

Glossary

1)earthquake :[noun]a shaking of the ground caused by movement of the earth’s crust.
2)property : [noun] Money, real estate, private property, livestock, etc
3)infectious : [adjective] A disease that is infectious can be caught by being near a person who has it. Compare contagious.
4) instruction : [noun]If someone gives you instruction in a subject or skill, they teach it to you.
5)approach :[verb] to come near or nearer in space, time, quality, character, state, etc
6)prevent : [verb] to stop someone from doing something, or something from happening; to hinder.
7)in advance : [phrase] you do it before a particular date or event.
8)minimize : [verb] a risk, problem, or unpleasant situation, you reduce it to the lowest possible level.
9)concern : [verb] to have to do with someone or something; to be about someone or something
10)overcome : [verb] to defeat someone or something; to succeed in a struggle against them or it; to deal successfully with them or it.
11)origin : [noun] a beginning or starting-point; a source.
12)greed : [noun] an excessive desire for, or consumption of, food.
13)phenomenon:[noun] A phenomenon is something that is observed to happen or exist.
14)volcano:[noun] A volcano is a mountain from which hot melted rock, gas, steam, and ash from inside the earth sometimes burst.
15)surface:[noun] The surface of something is the flat top part of it or the outside of it.
16)crust:[noun] The crust on a loaf of bread is the outside part.

These days, natural disasters are a hot issue all around the world. For example, Earthquake, Tsunami, The eruption of the vlocano and The green house effect, and so on.

First, the earthquake is the phenomenon which the surface violates to rapid change of the inside. To reduce earthquake damage, we prepare these. We must build building by earthquake resistant design. Also, we after an earthquake, be prepared for aftershocks. Recently, serious damage caused by earthquake in Haiti.

————- earthquake’s picture———

Reference
http://blog.naver.com/health21c?Redirect=Log&logNo=40098858751

Second, the tsunami is a very large wave, often caused by an earthquake. Tsunami caused the flood damage to property, loss of life, water pollution, infectious diseases. 26, December, 2004 tsunami in Indonesia has killed 300,000 people in total.

—- tsunami’s picture———

Reference
http://imagesearch.naver.com/

Third, the eruption of a volcano is when rock from the mental melts and moves to the surface through the earth’s crust and release built-up gases. If a volcano erupts, it will fill the air with gases, pieces of ash and smoke. Recently, it occurred in Iceland, so many people die.

———————volcano’ picture——-

Reference
http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=104&oid=105&aid=0000011278
http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=104&oid=105&aid=0000011278

Lastly, there is the green house effect. The green house effect occurred because the earth’s surface is being heated, so the earth’s temperature is rising. So, the glaciers are melting, and polar bear and penguins are losing their habitats.

Recently, movies about natural disaster are produced much. These movies give us a lot of instructions. For example, there are movies such as , , and .

————- —————–

Reference

http://movie.naver.com/movie/bi/mi/photo.nhn?code=49727
http://movie.naver.com/movie/bi/mi/photo.nhn?code=37758#ps
http://movie.naver.com/movie/bi/mi/photo.nhn?code=52552

Like that, most of natural disasters that approach to us can’t be prevented with human’s power. So, we have to prepare in advance to the measures of natural disasters and make an effort to minimize damages. But, the cause of disasters like the green house effect that is at the center of public concerns is owing to human. So, natural disasters like this must be overcome with human’s effort. The earth is the base of humans and the place of origin of all lives. Anymore greed of humans leads to fall of the earth. It’s like a movie, “2012”.

——————————————————————-

Discussion Questions

1. What do you think about the natural disasters occurred that have occurred these days?

2. Have you seen the movie any movies which is concerned are about natural disasters?

3. What can we do to prevent The greenhouse effect the Greenhouse Effect?

Class # 171

Group # 6

*Title : The Seoul Tour

Filed under: student presentations — richardlstansfield @ 6:54 am

*Glossary
-stop by (somewhere) : (phrasal verb)
to visit someone for a short time, usually on the way to another place
-specialty : (noun subject) a subject that someone knows a lot about
-brunch : (noun)a meal eaten in the late morning; a combination of breakfast and lunch
-theater : (noun) A theatre is a building with a stage in it, on which plays, shows, and other performances take place.
-gallery : (noun) A gallery is a place that has permanent exhibitions of works of art in it.
-unique : being the only existing one of its type or, more generally, unusual or special in some way
-theme park : a large permanent area for public entertainment, with entertaining activities and big machines to ride on or play games on, restaurants, etc., all connected with a single subject
-facility : a place, especially including buildings, where a particular activity happens

*Text
1. Tour with Friends – Daehangno

Daehangno is the street from Jongno 5-ga, Jongno-gu, Seoul to Hyehwadong rotary.
Total length 1.6km. In the past, Seoul national University was located near this street so that called ‘Daehangno’ (means Univ street) [1]Daehangno are populate place for young people. Thare are lots of theaters ,beautiful resturants, gallarys and Live Jazz Clubs. Marronier Park in this area is place to relax and holding amature performance.[2]

2. Tour with Foreigner – Itaewon
You could say Itaewon is Korea’s main residential area for foreigners.
and toady, the Itaewon is appointed the first Special Tourist Zone as most foreign tourist on 1997.
many foreigners visits the Korea, they are surely stop by the Itaewon.
there are shopping areas, restaurants, travel agencies, tourist hotels, general hospitals, and others.
it especially was shopping areas are very famous since the 88 olympic.
shopping areas of the Itaewon are filled various unique clothes, accessories, and others.
so the Itaewon is popular to not only foreigner but Korean. also if you go the Itaewon, you could experience various and special food of the world.
but there is one cons. that is not low price. but it is not all. in addiction, the Itaewon have National Museum of Korea and War Memorial of Korea.

As above, Itawon is famous as fashion.
The ‘Kim’s boutique’ is very famous as speciality store. because the Kim’s boutique sells the Hollywood style of unique design with cheaply.
the clothes of this place equal to famous hollywood actors like Sienna Miller, Cameron Diaz, Paris Hilton are dressed clothes.[3]

the Flying Pan Blue is famous as brunch, this place is more famous to Korean than tourist or foreigner.
this restaurant offers various kind of coffee, brunch, salad, and others. I said that the Flying Pan blue is famous as brunch.
menu of the that(;brunch) is Australia style food. and, If you will go this place, you could pay price per one person is 10,000~ 20,000.
for reference, there are the Flying Pan Pink and the Flying Pan Blue in the Itaewon, and as well there is the new Flying Pan White at the Shinsadong.

3.Tour with Couple – Sam-chung Dong

Walking along Sam-chung Dong Street will be a good date.
Traditional buildings and modern buildings are in harmony.
Sam-chung Dong Street has many alleyways.
The alleyways are formed of good food restaurants,
good mood cafes and so on.
Finding famous places in Sam-chung Dong Street will be a good time.

Have you ever heard hanok?
honok(ÇÑ¿Á) is Korean traditional houses.
these days, in cities, it is difficult to see hanok, but there are hanok in Bukchon Hanok Village.
from a recent drama named ‘ °³ÀÎÀÇ ÃëÇâ’ a Korean traditional house called ‘»ó°íÀç’ is fascinating.
It’s very attractive since you could feel relaxed even in the middle of a city surrounded by concrete.
How about walking through the pure roads of ºÏÃÌÇÑ¿Á¸¶À» with your true lover.

CheongGye Square is usually said Cheong-Gye Cheon.
Sometimes there are couples dipping their feet in Cheong-Gye Cheon.
Walking along Cheong-Gye Cheon and looking around a night view of Cheong-Gye Cheon make a date more romantic.
If you had a date with someone who you love, you would feel him(or her) more lovely.

4. Tour with Family

We want to explain Seoul¡¯s favorite place touring with family
First, the War Memorial of Korea.
This place is unique war history museum in Korea and memorial hall of ¡®the June 25th war of Korea¡¯.
It explain history of Korean War, expeditionary force (we dispatch other country) and weapon using Korean War like Tank, missile

Second, park of Seoul

Park of Seoul constructed in 2005 and it is very similar to central park in New York and Hyde Park in U.K [4]
Park of Seoul has five theme parks (1st Culture and Arts Park 2nd Eco Forest 3th Experiential Learning Park 4th. Marsh Plants Garden 5th Hangang Riverside Park)
so we can play recreation and take a rest with family.[5]
And there are Sports Facilities in park of Seoul. So we can play soccer, basket ball, skate, badminton and croquet also there is bicycle rentals [6]

*References
[1]http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EB%8C%80%ED%95%99%EB%A1%9C_(%EC%84%9C%EC%9A%B8)
[2]http://english.visitseoul.net/kr/article/article.do?_method=view&m=0004003002017&p=03&art_id=501&lang=kr
[3]http://zeeumm.com/52
[4]http://parks.seoul.go.kr/template/common/park_info/park_info_01.jsp?park_id=seoulforest
[5]http://parks.seoul.go.kr/template/common/park_info/park_info_01.jsp?p_idx=5&p_cate=2&f_idx=133&m_idx=242&park_id=seoulforest
[6]http://parks.seoul.go.kr/template/common/park_info/park_info_01.jsp?p_idx=5&p_cate=2&f_idx=250&park_id=seoulforest

*Pictures
1)http://blog.naver.com/lhscan/50085944264
2),3)http://kimsboutique.co.kr
4),5)http://blog.naver.com/kirakira83/80055518005
6)http://blog.naver.com/jcjkks/70085840436
7)http://cafe.naver.com/vincentphoto/100
8)imbc.com
9)http://photo.naver.com/view/2010012210344791646
10)Korea and memorial hall of 6.25
11)Park of Seoul
12)Pagoda of Memorial hall of the War

*Discussion Questions
-If you had a lover, where would you most want to go with him(or her)?

-Have you ever been to one of these places? If you have been going, when?

Is there anywhere nice to go except for these in Seoul?

In additions to these places, are there other nice places to go to in Seoul?

-When is Korean war started did the Korean War start?

-Who is winner about Korean war won the Korean War?

*Class # 137
*Group# 2
*Member : ÀÌ¿µ¼­, ±èÈ¿°æ, ÀÌÀº¼±, ÀÓ°ÇÀÏ

Final Written Exam

Filed under: announcements,final written exam — richardlstansfield @ 1:28 am

* Written Test 2 (Week 14):

Class 137 – Wednesday, June 2 Monday, May 31

Class 103 – Thursday, June 3

Class 34 – Thursday, June 3

Class 171 – Friday, June 4

Class 69 – Friday, June 4

All Classes

* –> What are three things that people do on [special day]?

e.g. What are three things that people do on Halloween?

– wear a costume

– go trick-or-treating

– make a jack’o’lanterns

– eat candy/give candy

– go to a party (adults)

* –> What is a tradition about [something] in [country’s name] ?

e.g. What is a tradition about money in Korea?

On a baby’s first birthday, parents put money, thread, and pencils in front of the baby.

Vocabulary

All Classes

festival: (noun) a series of events and celebrations, usually organized around a central theme

taco: (noun) a hard, folded tortilla (= thin flat bread) filled with meat, cheese, etc. and hot spicy sauce

bonfire: (noun) a large fire outside, often used for burning waste

fireworks: (noun) small objects that explodes to produce loud noises and bright colours and are often used to celebrate special events

lawyer: (noun) someone whose job is to understand the law and deal with legal situations

laptop: (noun) a computer that is small enough to be carried around and used where you are sitting

bride: (noun) a woman who is getting married

groom (also bridegroom): (noun) a man who is getting married

Class 137

respect: (verb) to admire someone because of their knowledge, achievements, etc.

commemorate: (noun) to do something to show you remember an important person or event in the past with respect

lyrics: (noun) the words of a song

peninsula: (noun) a long piece of land which sticks out from a larger area of land into the sea or into a lake

peculiar:(adj) unusual and strange, sometimes in an unpleasant way

dialect: (noun) a form of a language that people speak in a particular part of a country, containing some different words and grammar, etc.

investigate: (verb) When sby, especially an official, tries to find out what happened, or what is the truth, in an event, situation, or claim

consciousness: (noun) your mind and your thoughts

initiative: (noun) an important act or statement that is intended to solve a problem

stratum: (noun) a layer of rock, soil or similar material

instruction: (noun) the activity of teaching or training someone, or the information you are being taught (formal)

victim: (noun) someone who has suffered the effects of violence, illness, or bad luck

autopsy: (noun) a medical examination of a dead body to discover the exact cause of death

clutch: (verb) to hold something tightly

funeral: (noun) a ceremony for burying or burning the body of a dead person

stop by: (phrasal verb) to visit someone for a short time, usually on the way to another place

specialty: (noun) a subject that someone knows a lot about

facility: (noun) a place, especially including buildings, where a particular activity happens

Class 103

device: (noun) a machine or tool that does a special job

anniversary: (noun) a date on which something special or important happened in a previous year

corsage: (noun) a group of small flowers that a woman fastens to her clothes on a special occasion such as a wedding

representative: (noun) a person who has been chosen to act or make decisions on behalf of another person or a group of people

diverse (adjective): made up of a wide variety of things

steam: (noun) the hot mist that forms when water boils. Some vehicles and machines use it as a means of power

thrill: (noun) a strong feeling of excitement and pleasure

debut: (verb) the first time that a performer or sports player performs in public

hydraulic: (adjective) using water power to produce electricity or power

career: (noun) the part of your life that you spend working

contract: (noun) a legal agreement between two people or organizations, especially one that involves doing work for a

particular amount of money

extension: (noun) extra time that you are given to do or use something
billiards: (noun) a game played by two people on a table covered in green cloth in which a cue (= a long pole) is used to hit

balls against each other and into pockets around the table

zeal: (noun) great enthusiasm or eagerness

gasp: (verb) to take a short quick breath through the mouth, especially because of surprise, pain or shock

plagiarism: (noun) the practice of using or copying someone else’s idea or work and pretending that you thought of it or created it

interval: (noun) the period of time between two events or dates

controversy: (noun) a lot of discussion and argument about something, often involving strong feelings of anger or disapproval

predict: (verb) to say what you think will happen in the future

infinite: (adjective) without limits or without an end

surpass: (verb) to be or do better than someone or something else

Class 34

drunk driving: the act of operating and driving a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or dugs to the degree that mental and motor skills are impaired

crime: (noun) an illegal action or activity for which a person can be punished by law

ignore: (verb) to pay no attention to something or someone

astronomical observatory: (noun) location used for observe and research the stars in universe like planets, galaxies, nebulas etc.

animation: (noun) the precess of making films in which drawing or puppets appear to move

celebrities: (noun) people who are famous, especially in areas of entertainment such as films, music, writing, or sport

boots: (noun) a strong shoe that covers your foot and part of your leg

frame: (noun) the basic structure of a building, vehicle, piece of furniture, etc., that other parts are added onto

extreme sports: (noun) activities in which the participants experience the rush of adrenaline; They’re considered dangerous

cylinder: (noun) a shape with circular ends and long, straight sides, or a container

equipment: (noun) the things that are used for a particular activity or purpose

sponsor: (noun) a person or organization that gives money to support an activity, event, etc.

motocross: (noun) the sport of racing over rough ground on specially strengthened motorcycles

pursuit: (noun) when you try to achieve a plan, activity, or situation, usually over a long period of time

psychological: (adjective) relating to the human mind and feelings

marvel: (verb) to express your great surprise, wonder, or admiration of something

ignore: (verb) to pay no attention to someone or something

discriminate: (verb) to unfairly treat a group of people worse or better than other groups

Asian dust: (noun) clouds of soil and pollutants which affect much of East Asia during springtime

respiratory: (adjective) respiratory mean relating to the process of breathing

inorganic: (adjective) inorganic substances are substances such as stone and metal that do not come from living things

Class 171

nutritious: (adjective) containing substances which help your body to be healthy

protein: (noun) a substance found in food and drink such as meat, eggs, and milk; You need it to grow and be healthy

appropriate: (adjective) suitable or acceptable for a particular situation

include: (verb) to have another thing as one of its parts

industry: (noun) the work and processes involved in collecting raw materials, and making them into products in factories

the Mediterranean: (noun) the sea between southern Europe and North Africa

impudent: (adjective) rude or disrespectful, or do something they have no right to do

choreography: (noun) the process of designing dances for a performance

consecutive: (adjective) describes events, numbers, etc. that follow one after another without an interruption; successive

neglect: (verb) to fail to look after someone or something properly

criticize: (verb) to express your disapproval of someone or something by saying what you think is wrong with them

vicarious: (adjective) when a pleasure or feeling is experienced by watching, listening to, or reading about other people doing something, rather than by doing it yourself

overwhelmingly: (adjective) very strong in effect or large in amount

merge: (verb) to combine or join two or more things

adolescent: (noun) a young person who is between being a child and an adult

Class 69

proteins: (noun) organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and folded into a globular form

peculiarity: (noun) a strange or unusual characteristic or habit of someone or something

crab: (noun) a sea creature with ten legs and a round, flat body covered by a shell, or the meat from this animal

emigrate: (verb) to leave a country permanently and go to live in another one

breakthrough: (noun) an important discovery or event that helps to improve a situation or provide an answer to a problem

paralyze: (verb) to cause a person, animal or part of the body to lose the ability to move or feel

ancient: (adjective) from a long time ago (in the past)

abundant: (adjective) existing in large quantities

modern: (adjective) relating to the present time and not to the past

laser: (noun) a piece of equipment that produces a powerful narrow beam of light that can be used in medical operations, to cut metals, or to make patterns of light for entertainment

scenery: (noun) the natural features of a particular part of a country that you can see, such as mountains, forests, deserts etc.

representative: (adjective) typical of a particular group or thing

arcade game: a coin-operated entertainment machine, usually installed in public businesses such as restaurants and public houses

first-person shooter: (noun) a type of computer game in which the player assumes the perspective of a gunman

multiplayer online role-playing game: (noun) an online computer role-playing game in which a large number of players can interact with one another

advertise: (verb) to tell people about a product or service, for example in newspapers or on television, in order to persuade them to buy it

medium: (noun) a way of communicating or expressing something

enterprise: (noun) an organization, especially a business, or a difficult and important plan, especially one that will earn money

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