University English: the blog for ESL students

November 8, 2015

Unit 8: Business

Filed under: Unit 8: Business — richardlstansfield @ 5:34 am

In this unit, we will be talking about:
– jobs,
– job requirements,
– job seeking, and
– how to give advice (especially for job seekers).

We will begin by looking at the pictures on Page 142 and discussing the questions in Exercise 1.

Page 142, Exercise 2

1. popular
2. line
3. catch
4. dangerous
5. Fishermen
While Watching: Page 143, Exercise 4

Cape of Good Hope
– in South Africa
– Dangerous! famous for _storms_
– David’s _father_ disappeared at sea
– he _understands dangers_
– 2000 types of _fish_

Snoek (a kind of fish)
– fish
– popular _food_

David
– fisherman
– _family_ business
– teaches his _sons_
– family works _together_

Page 143, Exercise 5

Match the sentence halves.

1. e
2. b
3. d
4. f
5. a
6. c

Discussion
* Would you like to work in a job that isn’t in an office? Why or why not?
* If you couldn’t get an office job, what kind of job would you prefer, and why?
– fisherman
– farmer
– construction worker
– plumber
– carpenter
– something else (e.g. photographer, barista, travel guide, mechanic, etc.)

Page 144, Exercise 1
1. We earn money by _working_.
2. Colleagues are people who _we work with_.
3. When we spend time on something it means we _use time doing it_.
4. When we waste time we _use time badly_.
5. A project is a _piece of planned work_.

Page 144, Exercise 2
You will listen to a business student talking about a project. You will hear all of the numbers below. Write each number using words.
Example: 1  one
Example: 21  twenty-one

1. 48%
2. 1/2
3. 1/3
4. 31.5
5. 103
6. 1,540
7. 6,001

Answers
1. 48%
 forty-eight percent
2. 1/2
 a half // one half
3. 1/3
 one third
4. 31.5
 thirty-one point five
5. 103
 one hundred and three // a hundred and three
6. 1,540
 one thousand five hundred and forty
7. 6,001
 six thousand and one

Page 144, Exercise 4

1. usually after hundreds, but only after thousands if the number has thousands and then a single unit with no hundred in between
e.g. six thousand and one (6,001)
but
six thousand one hundred and one (6,101)

2. fifty percent

3. yes

4. we say zero (or nought in the United Kingdom)

5. we say “oh,” especially for phone numbers, or “zero”;
in the United Kingdom, they occasionally say “nought” but not in a phone number

Page 145, Exercise 5

1. F (She hasn’t finished yet. She ran out of time.)
2. T (She read 103 reports.)
3. F (She looked at how people spend time at work.)
4. T
5. F (A lot of people wasted time at work because they weren’t happy with their job.)

Page 145, Exercise 6
Listen again and complete the information on the chart.
Time Wasted At Work
5% 
15% 
31.5% 
48% 
Reasons For Wasting Time
__ % 
__ % 
__ % 

Answers

Time Wasted At Work

5%
 texting,
making plans for after work

15%
 taking longer coffee and lunch breaks than they should

31.5%
 talking to colleagues

48%
 surfing the Internet or
writing personal e-mails

Reasons For Wasting Time

33.5%
 didn’t work as hard as they should because they thought they weren’t earning enough

approx. 50%
 weren’t happy with their jobs

19 %
 said they were working too many hours

Discussion

Ask each other:
“What do you think are the two best ways to stop people from wasting time at work? Why?”

– make sure everyone has a regular break
– pay a very high wage
– shout at people who waste time
– give extra pay to people who work fast
– (something else)

Discuss and together come up with the two best ways to stop people from wasting time at work.

Report to the Class:

What two solutions did you and your partner decide upon? And why?

Example:
“My partner and I decided to make sure everyone has a regular break because sometimes people get tired and need to rest.
We also decided to give promotions to people who think of new ideas because companies need new ideas.
We decided not to shout at people who waste time because shouting at people makes them feel bad.

– make sure everyone has a regular break
– pay a very high wage
– shout at people who waste time
– give extra pay to people who work fast
– (something else)

Pre-discussion

Look at the sentences on Page 145, Exercise 8. Which ones do you agree with? Which ones do you disagree with? Write “agree” or “disagree” next to each sentence.

Discussion
Ask each other these questions. Discuss them using the phrases that we learned before.

1. Do you think that earning a lot of money is more important than having an interesting job?
2. Do you think that the most exciting work is to have your own business?
3. Do you think that younger people do not have enough experience to be good managers?
4. Do you think that older people with families don’t work as hard as young, single people?
5. Do you think that people who work the longest hours do the most work?
6. Do you think that the best time to start work is after university?

Giving Your Opinion:
I think … // It seems to me … // In my opinion … // I feel … // Don’t you think … ?
Agreeing:
I agree. // I totally agree. // That’s true. // Yes, that’s right. // Exactly! // You’re right. // That’s a good point.
Disagreeing:
Yes, but … // It’s good but … // I am not really sure. // I don’t think so. // I don’t agree with that // Yes, I see what you’re saying but … // I’m afraid I disagree. // I’m not sure I agree. // Maybe, but … // Perhaps, but … // I don’t agree.

Example
A: Do you think that the best time to start work is after university?
B: It seems to me if you work right after university, you won’t have much experience. I think that you should travel to other countries before working.
A: I’m afraid I disagree. Travelling to other countries before getting a job is good. However, I feel you should travel while in university, and then start work after university.

Report to the Class

Did you and your partner agree on anything, or not? Tell us.

Agreement  Both of us thought that …
 Neither of us thought that …

Disagreement  I thought that …
However, my partner thought that …

Example:

I thought that if you work right after university, you won’t have much experience, so you should travel to other countries before working.
However, my partner thought that you should travel while in university, and then start work after university.

Page 146, Exercise 1  Comparatives

Comparing Quantities

0%  the least
 less
 more
100%  the most

Page 146, Exercise 2

1. People spent the least amount of time _on the phone_.
2. People spent less time _in meetings_ than having breaks.
3. People spent the most time _working at a desk_.
4. People spent more time _having breaks_ than in meetings.

Page 146, Exercise 3

– People spent the least amount of time filling in papers and forms.
– People spent the most time helping someone else with their work.
– People spent less time going to meetings than waiting for someone to finish their part of a project.
– People spent more time waiting for someone to finish their part of a project than going to meetings.

Page 148, Exercise 7  Phrasal Verbs (Multi-word Verbs)

Phrasal (multi-word) verbs have more than one part: a verb and a particle or particles.

Also notice where the object (subject, verb, object) can be.

e.g. Please turn on the TV.

e.g. Please turn the volume down.

1. You have noted a lot of information down.
2. I haven’t finished yet –I ran out of time.
3. I noted down the key information.
4. I took part in the discussion on this.
5. I found out a larger amount of information.
6. I found a lot of information out.
7. I looked at how people spend time at work …
8. … the reasons why they didn’t get on with their work.
9. They only just had enough money to get by.

Page 148, Exercise 8

1. run out (of sth)
2. get on with
3. find out
4. get by
5. note down
6. take part in
7. look at

Page 149, Exercise 9

(1) I found a lot of information out.
(2) I noted down the key information.
(3) I found out a lot of information.

(4) I took part in the discussion on this.
(5) I looked at how people spend time at work.
(6) I looked at the reasons they didn’t get on with their work.

Page 149, Exercise 10

1. She looks after my children when I am at work.
– Type 2 (“inseparable”)
2. She decided to take yoga up to help with stress.
– Type 1
3. I need to leave the meeting early, but you can carry on.
– Type 3 (“intransitive”)

Page 149, Exercise 11

1. Would you like to take up a new hobby? If so, what would you do?
2. Can you get on with your work if it’s noisy?
3. If you have to find out new information for a lesson where do you look?
4. Do you note down phone numbers or put them straight into your phone?
5. Have you ever run out of money while you were out? How did you get by?
6. Is it easy to look after children? Why or why not?

Page 150, Exercise 1

1. d
2. a
3. f
4. e
5. g
6. c
7. b
8. h

Page 151, Exercise 4
What advice does the mentor give to Sami about what he should do in an interview?
1. * 5.
2. 6. *
3. * 7. *
4. * 8. *
Page 151, Exercise 5
Number the phrases in the order that you hear them.

a. 4
b. 2
c. 1
d. 5
e. 3

Page 151, Exercise 6
Which of the sentences in Exercise 5 look like statements?
Which ones look like questions?
We will listen again to the part of the conversation in which they discuss making eye contact.

1. Why didn’t Sami make eye contact?
In his country/culture, it can be rude to look someone in the eyes.

2. Why should you make eye contact in western countries (Europe, the United States, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand)?
People might think that you are unfriendly or nervous. (People might also think that you are dishonest, untrustworthy, and/or trying to hide something.)

Page 151, Exercise 9

Put the words in order to make questions the mentor asked Sami in the interview.
1. Why would you like to work with us?
2. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
3. Why should we give you the job?
4. What do you want to do long term?
5. Are you always on time?
6. Are you good at working in a team?
7. What kind of qualifications have you got?
8. When did you last solve a difficult problem?

Page 152, Exercise 2
1. Why would you like to _work_ with us?
2. What are your _strengths_ and weaknesses?
3. Why should we _give_ you the job?
4. What do you want to do _long term_?
5. When _did_ you last solve a difficult problem?
6. Are you good _at_ working in a team?
7. Are you always _on_ time?
8. What kind of qualifications _have_ you got?
9. Are you a patient type of _person_?

Page 154, Exercise 1

What is the function of this sentence?

“If you want to do better, you should start by looking more confident.”

a. explaining
b. requesting
c. giving advice *

Page 154, Exercise 2
– I think you should …
– Be careful not to …
– Why don’t you …?

Page 154, Exercise 3

Why do you think JP can’t find a job?

“I think JP can’t find a job because … “
– he gets low grades.
– he has no job experience.
– he hasn’t shaved.
– he looks too casual/carefree.

Page 155, Exercise 5

Underline the advice that the teacher gives.

– I think you should …

– If you want to do better, you need to …

Page 155, Exercise 4
Complete the sentences with your own ideas.

1. If I were you, I would …
– study harder (to get better grades).
– wear neat clothes/dress smartly.
2. I think you should …
– shave.
– take care of yourself.
3. If you want to do better, you should …
– get enough sleep.
– iron your shirt.
4. Be careful not to …
– bring your headphones when you have a job interview.

5. You should try (not) to …
– You should try to get some job experience.
– You should try to have confidence in yourself.

Page 156, Exercise 1

Look at the list of problems. Think of two or three solutions for each problem. You can use the words and phrases in the grey box to help you.

Page 156, Exercise 2

Choose two of the problems from Exercise 1 and ask your partner for help. Also, give your partner advice for his/her problems, using the phrases below.
– If I were you, I would …
– I think you should …
– If you want to do better, you should …
– Be careful not to …
– You should try (not) to …
– Why don’t you … ?
Pair Work
1. I’m working/studying long hours.
2. I’m not getting along with my boss/classmates.
3. I’m not enjoying my job/studies.
4. I’m finding it difficult to organize my time.
5. I’m finding it difficult to do my work/studies.

– If I were you, I would … // – I think you should …
– Be careful not to … // – You should try (not) to …
– If you want to do better, you should …
– Why don’t you …?

Pair Work

Tell each other your problems, and give advice to each other.

Student A
1. My friends are often late for appointments and waste my time.
2. When I speak English, I get so nervous.
3. I can’t use computers very well.
Student B
1. I keep forgetting appointments.
2. I think I’m doing badly in my English class.
3. I find it difficult to do presentations because I get so nervous.

– If I were you, I would …
– I think you should …
– If you want to do better, you should …
– Be careful not to …
– You should try (not) to …
– Why don’t you … ?

Discuss and Give Advice

Ask each other these questions, and give advice.

1. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
2. What do you want to do long term?
3. Are you always on time?
4. Are you good at working in a team?
5. When did you last solve a difficult problem?
6. Are you a patient type of person?

– If I were you, I would … // – I think you should …
– You should try (not) to … // – Why don’t you …?
– If you want to do better, you should …
– Be careful not to …

Example

A: Are you always on time?
B: I’m sometimes late for classes and appointments.
A: If you want to do better, you should use your cell-phone’s alarm clock to remind you of your appointments.

Report to the Class

Tell us one piece of advice that you gave to your partner.

Example
My partner is sometimes late for classes and appointments.
So I told her, “If you want to do better, you should use your cell-phone’s alarm clock to remind you of your appointments.”

1. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
2. What do you want to do long term?
3. Are you always on time?
4. Are you good at working in a team?
5. When did you last solve a difficult problem?
6. Are you a patient type of person?

May 13, 2015

Unit 8: Business

Filed under: Unit 8: Business — richardlstansfield @ 6:39 am

In this unit, we will be talking about:
– jobs,
– job requirements,
– job seeking, and
– how to give advice (especially for job seekers).

We will begin by looking at the pictures on Page 142 and discussing the questions in Exercise 1.

Page 142, Exercise 2

1. popular
2. line
3. catch
4. dangerous
5. Fishermen
While Watching: Page 143, Exercise 4

Cape of Good Hope
– in South Africa
– Dangerous! famous for _storms_
– David’s _father_ disappeared at sea
– he _understands dangers_
– 2000 types of _fish_

Snoek (a kind of fish)
– fish
– popular _food_

David
– fisherman
– _family_ business
– teaches his _sons_
– family works _together_

Page 143, Exercise 5

Match the sentence halves.

1. e
2. b
3. d
4. f
5. a
6. c

Discussion
* Would you like to work in a job that isn’t in an office? Why or why not?
* If you couldn’t get an office job, what kind of job would you prefer, and why?
– fisherman
– farmer
– construction worker
– plumber
– carpenter
– (something else)

Page 144, Exercise 1
1. We earn money by _working_.
2. Colleagues are _people who we work with_.
3. When we spend time on something in means we _use time doing it_.
4. When we waste time we _use time badly_.
5. A project is a _piece of planned work_.

Page 144, Exercise 2
You will listen to a business student talking about a project. You will hear all of the numbers below. Write each number using words.
Example: 1  one
Example: 21  twenty-one

1. 48%
2. 1/2
3. 1/3
4. 31.5
5. 103
6. 1, 540
7. 6, 001

Answers
1. 48%
 forty-eight percent
2. 1/2
 a half // one half
3. 1/3
 one third
4. 31.5
 thirty-one point five
5. 103
 one hundred and three // a hundred and three
6. 1, 540
 one thousand five hundred and forty
7. 6, 001
 six thousand and one

Page 144, Exercise 4

1. usually after hundreds, but only after thousands if the number has thousands and then a single unit with no hundred in between
e.g. six thousand and one (6,001)
but
six thousand one hundred and one (6,101)

2. fifty percent

3. yes

4. usually we say zero (or nought in the United Kingdom)

5. usually we say “oh,” especially for phone numbers, or “zero”; in the United Kingdom, they occasionally say “nought” but not in a phone number

Page 145, Exercise 5

1. F  She hasn’t finished yet.
2. T
3. F  She looked at how people spend time at work.
4. T
5. F  A lot of people wasted time at work because they weren’t happy with their job.

Page 145, Exercise 6
Listen again and complete the information on the chart.
Time Wasted At Work
5% 
15% 
31.5% 
48% 
Reasons For Wasting Time
__ % 
__ % 
__ % 

Answers

Time Wasted At Work

5%
 texting,
making plans after work

15%
 taking longer coffee and lunch breaks than they should

31.5%
 talking to colleagues

48%
 surfing the Internet or
writing personal e-mails

Reasons for Wasting Time

33.5%
 didn’t work as hard as they should because they thought they didn’t earn enough

approx. 50%
 weren’t happy with their jobs

19 %
 said they were working too many hours

Discussion

Ask each other:
“What do you think are the two best ways to stop people from wasting time at work? Why?”

– make sure everyone has a regular break
– pay a very high wage
– shout at people who waste time
– give extra pay to people who work fast
– (something else )

Discuss and together come up with the two best ways to stop people from wasting time at work.

Report to the Class:

What two solutions did you and your partner decide upon? And why?

Example:
“My partner and I decided to make sure everyone has a regular break because sometimes people get tired and need to rest.
We also decided to give promotions to people who think of new ideas because companies need new ideas.
We decided not to shout at people who waste time because shouting at people makes them feel bad.

Discussion

Look at the sentences on Page 145, Exercise 8. Which ones do you agree with? Which ones do you disagree with? Write “agree” or “disagree” next to each sentence.

1. Earning a lot of money is/isn’t more important than having an interesting job.
2. The most exciting work is/isn’t to have your own business.
3. Younger people have/don’t have enough experience to be good managers?
4. Older people with families work/don’t work as hard as young single people.
5. People who work the longest hours do/don’t do the most work.
6. The best time to start work is/isn’t after university.

Discuss the sentences using these phrases that we learned before.
Giving Your Opinion:
I think … // It seems to me … // In my opinion … // I feel … // Don’t you think … ?
Agreeing:
I agree. // I totally agree. // That’s true. // Yes, that’s right. // Exactly! // You’re right. // That’s a good point.
Disagreeing:
Yes, but … // It’s good but … // I am not really sure. // I don’t think so. // I don’t agree with that // Yes, I see what you’re saying but … // I’m afraid I disagree. // I’m not sure I agree. // Maybe, but … // Perhaps, but … // I don’t agree.

Example
A: Don’t you think the best time to start work is after university?
B: Yes, I see what you’re saying but if you work right after university, you won’t have much experience. It seems to me that you should travel to other countries before working.
A: I’m afraid I disagree. Travelling to other countries before getting a job is good. However, I think you should travel while in university, and then start work after university.

Page 146, Exercise 1  Comparatives

Comparing Quantities

0%  the least
 less
 more
100%  the most

Page 146, Exercise 2

1. People spent the least amount of time _on the phone_.
2. People spent less time _in meetings_ than having breaks.
3. People spent the most time _working at a desk_.
4. People spent more time _having breaks_ than in meetings.

Page 146, Exercise 3









Page 148, Exercise 7  Multi-word Verbs

Multi-word verbs have more than one part: a verb and a particle or particles.

Also notice where the object (subject, verb, object) can be.

e.g. Please turn on the TV.

turn = verb
on = particle
the TV = object

e.g. Please turn the volume down.

turn = verb
down = particle
the volume = object

1. You have noted a lot of information down.
2. I haven’t finished yet –I ran out of time.
3. I noted down the key information.
4. I took part in the discussion on this.
5. I found out a larger amount of information.
6. I found a lot of information out.
7. I looked at how people spend time at work …
8. … the reasons why they didn’t get on with their work.
9. They only just had enough money to get by.

Page 148, Exercise 8

1. run out (of)
2. get on with
3. find out
4. get by
5. note down
6. take part in
7. look at

Page 149, Exercise 9

(1) I found a lot of information out.
(2) I noted down the key information.
(3) I found out a lot of information.

(4) I took part in the discussion on this.
(5) I looked at how people spend time at work.
(6) I looked at the reasons they didn’t get on with their work.

Page 149, Exercise 10

1. She looks after my children when I am at work.
– take care of // Type 2
2. She decided to take yoga up to help with stress.
– begin (a hobby or course) // Type 1
3. I need to leave the meeting early, but you can carry on.
– continue to do something // Type 3

Page 149, Exercise 11

1. Would you like to take
2. Can you get
3. If you have to find
4. Do you note
5. Have you ever run out
6. Is it easy to look

Page 150, Exercise 1

1. d
2. a
3. f
4. e
5. g
6. c
7. b
8. h

Page 151, Exercise 4
What advice does the mentor give to Sami about what he should do in an interview?
1. * 5.
2. 6. *
3. * 7. *
4. * 8. *
Page 151, Exercise 5
Number the phrases in the order that you hear them.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Page 151, Exercise 6
Which of the sentences in Exercise 5 look like statements?
Which ones look like questions?

Page 151, Exercise 9

Put the words in order to make questions the mentor asked Sami in the interview.
1. Why would you like to work with us?
2. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
3. Why should we give you the job?
4. What do you want to do long term?
5. Are you always on time?
6. Are you good at working in a team?
7. What kind of qualifications have you got?
8. When did you last solve a difficult question?

Page 154, Exercise 1

What is the function of this sentence?

“If you want to do better, you should start by looking more confident.”

a. explaining
b. requesting
c. giving advice

Page 154, Exercise 2

– I think you should …
– Why don’t you … ?
– Be careful not to …

Page 154, Exercise 3

Why do you think JP can’t find a job?

“I think JP can’t find a job because … “

– his test scores are low.
– he doesn’t dress smartly.
– he looks lazy.
– he doesn’t have job experience.
– he doesn’t look confident.
– he doesn’t shave.

Page 155, Exercise 5
Underline the advice that the teacher gives.


Page 155, Exercise 4

Complete the sentences with your own ideas.

1. If I were you, I would shave.

2. I think you should study harder.

3. If you want to do better, you should get an internship or a part-time job.

4. Be careful not to be lazy.

5. You should try to dress smartly.

Pair Work

Tell each other your problems, and give advice to each other.

Student A
1. My friends are often late for appointments and waste my time.
2. When I speak English, I get so nervous.
3. I can’t use the computer very well.
Student B
1. I keep forgetting appointments.
2. I think I’m doing badly in my English class.
3. I find it difficult to do presentations because I get so nervous.
– If I were you, I would … // – You should try (not) to …
– I think you should … // – Be careful not to …
– Why don’t you … ?
– If you want to do better, you should …

Page 152, Exercise 2

1. Why would you like to _work_ with us?
2. What are your _strengths_ and weaknesses?
3. Why should we _give_ you the job?
4. What do you want to do _long term_?
5. When _did_ you last solve a difficult problem?
6. Are you good _at_ working in a team?
7. Are you always _on_ time?
8. What kind of qualifications _have_ you got?
9. Are you a patient type of _person_?

Discuss and Give Advice

Ask each other these questions, and give advice.

1. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
2. What do you want to do long term?
3. Are you always on time?
4. Are you good at working in a team?
5. When did you last solve a difficult problem?
6. Are you a patient type of person?
– If I were you, I would … // – I think you should …
– You should try (not) to … // – Why don’t you … ?
– If you want to do better, you should …
– Be careful not to …

Example

A: Are you always on time?
B: I’m sometimes late for classes and appointments.
A: If you want to do better, you should try to be more punctual.

Report to the Class

Tell us one piece of advice that you gave to your partner.

Example

My partner is sometimes late for classes and appointments.
So I told her, “If you want to do better, you should try to be more punctual.”

Page 156, Exercise 1

Look at the list of problems. Think of two or three solutions for each problem. You can use the words and phrases in the grey box to help you.

Page 156, Exercise 2
Choose two of the problems from Exercise 1 and ask your partner for help. Also, give your partner advice for his/her problems, using the phrases below.
– If I were you, I would …
– I think you should …
– If you want to do better, you should …
– Be careful not to …
– You should try (not) to …
– Why don’t you … ?
Pair Work
1. I’m working/studying long hours.
2. I’m not getting along with my boss/classmates.
3. I’m not enjoying my job/studies.
4. I’m finding it difficult to organize my time.
5. I’m finding it difficult to do my work/studies.

– If I were you, I would … // – I think you should …
– Be careful not to … // – You should try (not) to …
– If you want to do better, you should …
– Why don’t you … ?

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